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Table 4 Prospective associations of waist circumference (WC) and BMI measured at ages 8 and 12 years with FEV 1 , FVC and FEV 1 /FVC ratio measured at age 12 years, separately for girls and boys

From: BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

  FEV1 FVC FEV1/FVC ratio
  Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys
  % difference % difference % difference % difference % difference % difference
  (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Waist circumference       
 High-normal 4.5 (0.2, 9.0) 2.9 (−2.0, 8.0) 4.8 (0.5, 9.3) 3.8 (−0.7, 8.6) −0.3 (−2.5, 1.9) −0.8 (−3.2, 1.8)
 Normal-high 1.3 (−3.4, 6.3) −0.8 (−5.3, 3.9) 2.9 (−1.8, 8.0) 2.6 (−1.8, 7.1) −1.4 (−3.8, 1.1) −2.6 (−4.9, −0.2)
 High-high 2.4 (−1.7, 6.7) −1.3 (−5.6, 3.3) 5.3 (1.1, 9.7) 2.3 (−1.9, 6.6) −4.4 (−4.4, −0.3) −2.9 (−5.2, 0.6)
BMI       
 High-normal 4.4 (−0.2, 9.3) −2.7 (−7.6, 2.4) 4.0 (−0.6, 8.9) −0.7 (−5.4, 4.2) 0.3 (−2.1, 2.7) −1.7 (−4.3, 1.0)
 Normal-high 3.9 (−1.7, 9.8) −2.8 (−8.1, 2.8) 5.3 (−0.4, 11.2) 1.6 (−3.6, 7.1) −1.1 (−4.0, 1.8) −3.4 (−6.2, −0.5)
 High-high 2.0 (−1.8, 5.9) −0.6 (−4.6, 3.5) 5.2 (1.3, 9.2) 1.8 (−2.0, 5.8) −2.6 (−4.5, −0.7) −2.1 (−4.2,-0.0)
Adjusted for confounders*       
Waist circumference       
 High-normal 5.6 (1.2, 10.1) 3.6 (−1.6, 9.1) 5.7 (1.4, 10.3) 4.5 (0.4, 9.6) −0.2 (−2.3, 2.1) −0.7 (−3.2, 2.0)
 Normal-high 1.6 (−3.5, 6.9) −1.0 (−5.6, 3.8) 2.8 (−2.3, 8.2) 2.5 (−1.9, 7.1) −1.1 (−3.7, 1.6) −2.7 (−5.1, −0.3)
 High-high 1.6 (−2.7, 5.9) −1.8 (−6.3, 2.8) 5.0 (0.7, 9.6) 1.7 (−2.6, 6.1) −2.8 (−4.9, −0.7) −2.9 (−5.2, −0.5)
BMI       
 High-normal 4.7 (0.1, 9.6) −3.0 (−8.2, 2.6) 4.3 (−0.4, 9.2) −1.2 (−6.3, 4.1) 0.3 (−2.1, 2.7) −1.4 (−4.3, 1.5)
 Normal-high 4.0 (1.6, 9.9) −2.5 (−7.9, 3.3) 5.6 (−0.1, 11.6) 1.8 (−3.4, 7.5) −1.3 (−4.2, 1.6) −3.3 (−6.2, −0.4)
 High-high 1.3 (−2.5, 5.4) −0.9 (−4.8, 3.3) 4.9 (0.9, 9.1) 1.7 (−2.2, 5.6) −2.9 (−4.9, −0.9) −2.1 (−4.2, −0.0)
  1. The results are a percent difference in the lung function testing variables of the children with a high-normal, normal-high, and high-high BMI or WC status, compared with children with a normal-normal BMI or WC status. All analyses were adjusted for the child’s height and age.
  2. *Adjusted for pubertal development and maternal education.
  3. Bold represents a statistically significant association.