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Table 1 Description of each component of the transtheoretical model (TTM)

From: Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in bronchiectasis: a cross-sectional study

TTM construct [18] Description[18]
Stage of change  
Pre-contemplation No intention to engage in regular physical activity
Contemplation Intend to engage in regular physical activity in next 6 months
Preparation Immediate intentions and commitment to engage in regular physical activity
Action Initiated engagement in regular physical activity in last 6 months
Maintenance Maintained engagement of regular physical activity for longer than 6 months
Self-efficacy Personal confidence towards physical activity commitment when: Tired/In a bad mood/Do not have time/On vacation/It is raining or snowing/Having respiratory symptoms*
Decisional balance  
Pros Perceived benefits of engaging in regular physical activity
Cons Perceived barriers to engaging in regular physical activity
Cognitive processes of change  
Increasing knowledge Finding information on the benefits of physical activity and the current recommendations for physical activity
Being aware of risk Concern for the risks of being physically inactive
Caring about consequences Realising social and environmental benefits that physical activity has
Comprehending benefits Assessing physical activity status and the values related to physical activity
Increasing healthy opportunities Awareness, availability and acceptance by the individual of physical activity in the society
Behavioural processes of change  
Substituting alternatives Substituting inactive options for active options
Enlisting social support Seeking out social support to increase and maintain physical activity
Rewarding oneself Providing rewards for being more active
Committing oneself Setting goals and making commitments for physical activity
Reminding oneself Controlling factors that have a negative effect on physical activity to prevent relapse and using stimuli to increase physical activity level
  1. *Question on ‘having respiratory symptoms’ was added to the original five questions.