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Table 3 Associations among antioxidant nutrient intake, environmental tobacco smoke, and prevalence of asthma symptoms

From: Modification of additive effect between vitamins and ETS on childhood asthma risk according to GSTP1 polymorphism : a cross -sectional study

Variable Wheeze symptom in the previous 12 months Asthma diagnosis
n (%) aORf (95 % CI) n (%) aORf (95 % CI)
Antioxidant intakeh
Vitamin Aa Low 46/725 (6.34) 1.00 74/720 (10.28) 1.00
High 17/360 (4.72) 0.53 (0.24, 1.17) 36/362 (9.94) 0.77 (0.44, 1.34)
Retinolb Low 42/722 (5.82) 1.00 59/714 (8.26) 1.00
High 21/363 (5.79) 0.59 (0.27, 1.28) 51/368 (13.86) 1.51 (0.88, 2.60)
Carotenec Low 41/725 (5.66) 1.00 71/723 (9.82) 1.00
High 22/360 (6.11) 0.95 (0.46, 2.00) 39/359 (10.86) 0.95 (0.55, 1.62)
Vitamin Cd Low 38/725 (5.24) 1.00 66/727 (9.08) 1.00
High 25/360 (6.94) 0.97 (0.45, 2.07) 44/355 (12.39) 1.14 (0.66, 1.97)
Vitamin Ee Low 34/725 (4.69) 1.00 60/726 (8.26) 1.00
High 29/360 (8.06) 1.67 (0.72, 3.87) 50/356 (14.04) 1.57 (0.85, 2.89)
Environmental tobacco smokeg No 31/683 (4.54) 1.00 60/674 (8.90) 1.00
Yes 31/386 (8.03) 2.48 (1.29, 4.76)* 50/390 (12.82) 1.91 (1.19, 3.06)*
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio, BMI body mass index
  2. aCut-off point for dietary vitamin A, 803.84 μg/day
  3. bCut-off point for dietary retinol, 253.69 μg/day
  4. cCut-off point for dietary β-carotene, 3081.38 μg/day
  5. dCut-off point for dietary vitamin C, 81.4 mg/day
  6. eCut-off point for dietary vitamin E, 14.68 mg/day
  7. faOR: Adjusted by age, sex, BMI (continuous), parental history of asthma, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, maternal education, household income, and log-transformed total energy intake
  8. gaOR: Adjusted for the same confounders as above with the exception of environmental tobacco smoke
  9. hNutrients were adjusted for total energy intake
  10. *P-value < 0.01