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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics with respect to insulin resistance

From: The relation between insulin resistance and lung function: a cross sectional study

   Insulin resistance p value
Total Absent Present with vs. without insulin resistance
(n = 171) (n = 108) (n = 63)
Demographics Mean (SD)    
Age (year) 43.1 (11.9) 43.0 (11.6) 43.2 (12.5) 0.9251
Gender   n (%)  
Male 16 (9.4) 7 (6.5) 9 (14.3) 0.0912
Female 155 (90.6) 101 (93.5) 54 (85.7)
Anthropometrics    
Height (cm) Mean (SD) 160.0 (7.7) 159.1 (6.8) 161.7 (8.9) 0.110b
Weight (kg) 160.0 (7.7) 84.4 (12.7) 96.0 (16.9) <0.001b
Body mass index (kg/m2)    
Overall score Mean (SD) 34.7 (5.7) 33.4 (5.2) 37.0 (5.8) <0.001b
29.9 n (%) 30 (17.5) 25 (23.1) 5 (7.9) <0.0012
30-34.9 71 (41.5) 52 (48.1) 19 (30.2)
35 70 (40.9) 31 (28.7) 39 (61.9)
Waist circumference (cm) 101.5 (11.3) 98.3 (9.8) 107.0 (11.5) <0.001b
Blood pressure (mmHg)   Mean (SD)  
Systolic 131.7 (18.7) 130.6 (19.3) 133.4 (17.5) 0.220b
Diastolic 81.0 (11.3) 80.2 (11.4) 82.4 (11.1) 0.235b
Glycemic parameters   Mean (SD)  
FBG (mg/dL) 108.2 (35.1) 102.2 (32.0) 118.5 (37.8) <0.001b
HbA1c (%) 6.1 (1.1) 6.0 (1.0) 6.3 (1.2) 0.013b
Insulin (μU/ml) 10.1 (5.9) 6.9 (2.3) 15.7 (6.1) <0.001b
HOMA-IR 2.7 (1.8) 1.7 (0.5) 4.5 (1.8) <0.001b
Lipid parameters   Mean (SD)  
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 121.5 (35.3) 122.8 (35.2) 119.1 (35.6) 0.299b
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 50.2 (10.8) 52.9 (10.9) 45.6 (8.9) <0.001b
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 198.6 (41.4) 197.7 (41.2) 200.1 (42.0) 0.719b
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 151.6 (86.3) 127.8 (65.9) 192.4 (101.3) <0.001b
Metabolic syndrome    
Present n (%) 109 (63.7) 57 (52.8) 52 (82.5) <0.0012
Diagnostic criteria (#) Mean (SD) 3.0 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0) 4.0 (1.0) <0.001b
Waist circumference (Male>94 cm, Female>80 cm) 171 (100.0) 108 (100.0) 63 (100.0) -
Blood pressure (≥130/≥85 mm Hg) 98 (57.3) 56 (51.9) 42 (66.7) 0.0592
Fasting blood glucose (≥100 mg/dL, or concomitant diabetes mellitus) 80 (46.8) 41 (38.0) 39 (61.9) 0.0022
HDL cholesterol (Male < 40 mg/dL, Female <50 mg/dL) 94 (55.0) 50 (46.3) 44 (69.8) 0.0032
Triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL) 76 (44.4) 37 (34.3) 39 (61.9) <0.0012
Spirometric findings   Mean (SD)  
FEV1%pre (%) 93.6 (11.9) 95.2 (10.9) 91.0 (13.2) 0.111b
FEV1/FVC%pre (%) 105.3 (5.8) 106.3 (5.2) 103.5 (6.4) 0.004b
PEF%pre (%) 88.3 (15.5) 89.6 (14.1) 86.0 (17.4) 0.281b
FEF 25-75%pre (%) 109.2 (22.7) 112.7 (21.8) 103.1 (23.1) 0.020b
FVC%pre (%) 89.1 (11.3) 89.7 (10.6) 88.0 (12.5) 0.587b
FIVC%pre % 84.3 (23.2) 86.1 (24.7) 81.3 (20.6) 0.119b
Respiratory function   n (%)  
Normal 134 (78.4) 90 (83.3) 44 (69.8) 0.0392
Abnormal 37 (21.6) 18 (16.7) 19 (30.2)
  1. HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, FBG fasting blood glucose, FEV1%pre forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration for predicted values, FVC%pre forced vital capacity for predicted values, PEF%pre peak expiratory flow for predicted values, FEF%pre forced expiratory flow for predicted values; FIVC%pre: forced inspiratory vital capacity for predicted values
  2. aStudent’s t-test, 2X 2 test, bMann–Whitney U test