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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included studies and all-cause mortality (binary data)

From: Mortality and drug therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a network meta-analysis

      Baseline characteristics All-cause mortality (binary)
References Trial Treatment Dose Study duration (weeks) n Mean age (yr.) Women (%) Current smokers (%) FEV1 (mean % predicted) Subjects Deaths - ITT Deaths – OT
[53] Aaron 2007 Tiotropium + Salmeterol 18 μg od/50 μg bid 52 148 67.6 42.6 24.3 41.2 148 6 NR
Tiotropium + SFC 18 μg od/50/500 μg bid   145 67.5 42.1 32.4 42.2 145 6 NR
Tiotropium + Placebo 18 μg od   156 68.1 46.2 26.9 42.1 156 4 NR
[40] Anzueto 2009 SFC 50/250 μg bid 52 394 65.4 49.0 42.0 41.2 394 4 NR
Salmeterol 50 μg bid   403 65.3 43.0 43.0 40.0 403 6 NR
[54] Bateman 2010 Tiotropium 5 μg od 48 1952 64.8 21.9 35.7 45.2 1952 52 NR
Placebo -   1965 64.8 23.0 35.9 45.4 1965 38 NR
[55] ISOLDE (Burge 2000) Fluticasone Propionate 500 μg bid 156 376 63.7 25.0 36.4 50.3 372 32 NR
Placebo -   375 63.8 26.0 39.2 50.0 370 36 NR
[56] Calverley 2003 Budesonide + Formoterol 320/9 μg bid 52 254 64.0 22.0 33.0 36.0 254 5 NR
Budesonide 400 μg bid   257 64.0 26.0 39.0 36.0 257 6 NR
Formoterol 9 μg bid   255 63.0 25.0 36.0 36.0 255 13 NR
Placebo -   256 65.0 25.0 30.0 36.0 256 5 NR
[5] TORCH* (Calverley 2007) Fluticasone Propionate 500 μg bid 156 1534 65.0 25.0 43.0 44.1 1534 246 NR
Salmeterol 50 μg bid   1521 65.1 24.0 43.0 43.6 1521 205 NR
SFC 50/500 μg bid   1533 65.0 25.0 43.0 44.3 1533 193 NR
Placebo -   1524 65.0 24.0 43.0 44.1 1524 231 NR
[57] Calverley 2007 Roflumilast 500 μg od 52 760 65.0 25.0 38.0 41.0 760 12 NR
Placebo    753 64.0 24.0 35.0 41.0 753 20 NR
[58] M2-124 (Calverley 2009) Roflumilast 500 μg od 52 765 64.0 29.0 48.0 37.6 765 17 NR
Placebo    758 63.0 29.0 48.0 37.5 758 17 NR
M2-125 (Calverley 2009) Roflumilast 500 μg od 52 772 64.0 21.0 35.0 34.6 772 25 NR
  Placebo    796 64.0 19.0 35.0 35.3 796 25 NR
[59] Calverley 2010 Beclomethasone + Formoterol 200/12μg bid 48 232 63.0 20.7 38.8 41.9a 232 2 NR
Budesonide + Formoterol 400/12μg bid   238 64.1 18.5 36.1 42.3a 238 4 NR
Formoterol 12 μg bid   233 63.7 18.9 37.3 42.5a 233 0 NR
[49] Campbell 2005 Formoterol bid + Formoterol 9 μg bid / 4.5 μg as needed 26 225 60.0 29.0 56.0 54.4b 225 1 NR
Formoterol bid + Terbutaline 9μg bid / 0.5 mg as needed   215 60.0 39.0 54.0 53.0b 215 2 NR
Placebo + Terbutaline 0.5 mg as needed   217 60.0 27.0 55.0 54.1b 217 0 NR
[26] Casaburi 2005 Tiotropium 18 μg od 25 55 65.9 45.5 29.1 32.6b 55 1 NR
Placebo -   53 67.3 41.5 18.9 36.2b 53 0 NR
[27] Chan 2007 Tiotropium 18 μg od 48 608 66.8 41.0 32.0 39.4b 608 15 13
  Placebo -   305 66.9 39.0 30.0 39.3b 305 4 2
[60] Choudhury 2007 Fluticasone Propionate 500 μg bid 52 128 67.6 52.0 40.6 53.2 128 3 NR
Placebo -   132 67.3 44.0 35.6 55.0 132 0 NR
[28] INVOLVE (Dahl 2010) Indacaterol (300) 300μg od 52 437 64.0 19.7 NR 51.5 437 1 1
Indacaterol (600) 600μg od   425 63.0 23.1 NR 50.8 428 1 0
Formoterol 12μg (bid)   434 64.0 19.8 NR 52.5 435 5 3
Placebo -   432 63.0 18.5 NR 52.0 432 5 4
[29] Donohue 2002 Salmeterol 50 μg bid 26 213 64.6 25.0 NR 40.2bc 213 3 NR
Tiotropium 18 μg od   209 64.5 26.0 NR 40.2bc 209 0 NR
Placebo -   201 65.6 25.0 NR 40.2bc 201 4 NR
[30] INHANCE (Donohue 2010) Indacaterol (150) 150 μg od 26 416 63.4 37.7 NR 56.1 416 1 NR
Indacaterol (300) 300 μg od   416 63.3 36.8 NR 56.3 416 0 NR
Tiotropium 18 μg od   415 64.0 35.2 NR 53.9 415 2 NR
Placebo -   418 63.6 39.0 NR 56.1 418 0 NR
[31] Ferguson 2008 SFC 250/50 μg bid 52 394 64.9 42.0 40.0 39.8 394 6 NR
Salmeterol 50 μg bid   388 65.0 48.0 38.0 40.6 388 3 NR
[32] Hanania 2003 Fluticasone Propionate 250 μg bid 24 183 63.0 34.0 48.0 42.0b 183 0 NR
Salmeterol 50 μg bid   177 64.0 42.0 51.0 42.0 177 0 NR
SFC 250 / 50 μg bid   178 63.0 39.0 43.0 41.0 178 0 NR
Placebo -   185 65.0 32.0 47.0 42.0b 185 0 NR
[33] VIVACE (Kardos 2007) Salmeterol 50 μg bid 44 487 64.0 22.4 44.4 40.3 487 9 NR
SFC 50/500 μg bid   507 63.8 26.0 40.6 40.4 507 7 NR
[41] Kerstjens 1992 Ipratropium Bromide + Terbutaline 800/2000 μg bid 130 92 38.9 36.0 34.0 63.3a 92 0 NR
Beclomethasone + Terbutaline 160/2000 μg bid   91 40.2 35.0 36.0 64.6a 91 0 NR
Placebo + Terbutaline na/2000 μg bid   91 39.6 36.0 37.0 63.3a 91 0 NR
[42] INLIGHT-2 (Kornmann 2011) Indacaterol 150 μg od 26 330 63.0 28.0 46.0 54.0 330 1 NR
Salmeterol 50 μg bid   333 63.0 25.0 46.0 53.0 333 0 NR
Placebo -   335 64.0 23.0 45.0 53.0 335 3 NR
[34] Mahler 2002 Fluticasone Propionate 500 μg bid 24 168 64.4 39.0 46.0 41.0b 168 0 NR
Salmeterol 50 μg bid   160 63.5 36.0 46.0 40.0b 160 0 NR
SFC 50 / 500 μg bid   165 61.9 38.0 46.0 41.0b 165 0 NR
Placebo -   181 64.0 25.0 54.0 41.0b 181 3 NR
[61] Niewoehner 2005 Tiotropium - 26 914 67.6 2.0 29.0 35.6b 914 22 NR
Placebo 18 μg od   915 68.1 1.0 30.0 35.6b 915 19 NR
[22] EUROSCOP (Pauwels 1999) Budesonide 400μg bid 156 634 52.5 26.5 100.0 76.8a 634 8 NR
Placebo -   643 52.4 27.8 100.0 76.9a 643 10 NR
[35] Rennard 2009 Budesonide + Formoterol 320/9 μg bid 52 494 63.2 37.7 39.1 38.6 494 8 3
Budesonide + Formoterol 160/9 μg bid   494 63.6 37.2 41.9 39.6 494 8 6
Formoterol 9 μg bid   495 62.9 34.7 45.1 39.3 495 6 2
Placebo -   481 62.9 34.7 43.9 40.8 481 8 4
[36] FICOPD II (Rossi 2002) Formoterol 12 12 μg bid 52 211 63.0 13.0 NR 47.0b 211 3 NR
Formoterol 24 24 μg bid   214 62.0 17.0 NR 47.0b 214 1 NR
Theophylline 200/300 mg bid   209 64.0 18.0 NR 46.0b 209 0 NR
Placebo -   220 63.0 21.0 NR 49.0b 220 0 NR
[62] Schermer 2009 Fluticasone Propionate 500 μg bid 156 94 58.4 27.0 62.0 68.7b 94 8 NR
Placebo -   96 59.6 32.0 51.0 71.4b 96 3 NR
[23] Shaker 2009 Budesonide 400 μg bid 208 127 63.6 38.0 100.0 51.0b 127 5 NR
Placebo -   127 63.6 46.0 100.0 53.0b 127 5 NR
[43] Stockley 2006 Salmeterol 50 μg bid 52 318 62.3 24.0 46.0 45.8b 216 6 NR
Placebo -   316 62.4 23.0 47.0 46.1b 222 5 NR
[37] Szafranski 2003 Budesonide + Formoterol 320/9 μg bid 52 208 64.0 24.0 30.0 36.0b 208 6 NR
Budesonide 400 μg bid   198 64.0 20.0 36.0 37.0b 198 5 NR
Formoterol 9 μg bid   201 63.0 24.0 38.0 36.0b 201 6 NR
Placebo -   205 65.0 17.0 34.0 36.0b 205 9 NR
[63] Tashkin 2008 Budesonide + Formoterol 320/9 μg bid 26 277 63.1 32.1 44.4 39.1 277 3 NR
Budesonide + Formoterol 160/9 μg bid   281 63.6 35.6 44.8 39.9 281 4 NR
Budesonide + Formoterol 320 + 9 μg bid (separate)   287 63.7 25.8 41.5 39.2 287 0 NR
Budesonide 320 μg bid   275 63.4 32.4 42.9 39.7 275 2 NR
Formoterol 9 μg bid   284 63.5 34.5 41.9 39.6 284 1 NR
Placebo -   300 63.2 31.0 39.7 41.3 300 1 NR
[64, 65] UPLIFT (Tashkin 2008/Celli 2009) Tiotropium 18 μg od 208 2986 64.5 24.6 29.3 47.7 2987 446 381
Placebo -   3006 64.5 26.1 29.9 47.4 3006 495 411
[44] Tonnel 2008 Tiotropium 18 μg od 39 266 64.9 13.2 23.7 47.5b 266 3 NR
Placebo    288 63.5 14.6 30.2 46.2b 288 6 NR
[45] COPE (van der Valk 2002) Fluticasone Propionate 500 μg bid 26 123 64.1 14.6 22.0 57.5 123 1 NR
Placebo -   121 64.0 16.5 33.3 56.1 121 1 NR
[46] CCLS (Vestbo 1999) Budesonide 800 μg od + 400 μg od for 6 months; 400 μg bid for 30 month 156 145 59.0 41.4 75.9 86.2 145 4 NR
Placebo -   145 59.1 37.9 77.2 86.9 145 5 NR
[38] Vogelmeier 2008 Formoterol 10 μg bid 24 210 61.8 24.3 NR 51.6b 210 0 NR
Tiotropium 18 μg od   221 63.4 20.8 NR 51.6b 221 0 NR
Tiotropium + Formoterol 18 μg od/10 μg bid   207 62.6 20.8 NR 50.4 207 0 NR
Placebo -   209 62.5 22.5 NR 51.1 209 1 NR
[47] POET-COPD 2011 (Vogelmeier 2011) Tiotropium 18 μg od 52 3707 62.9 25.6 48.0 49.2 3707 64 66
Salmeterol 50 μg bid   3669 62.8 25.1 48.3 49.4 3669 78 73
[66] INSPIRE (Wedzicha 2008) SFC 50/500 μg bid 104 658 64.0 19.0 38.0 39.1 658 21 18
Tiotropium 18 μg od   665 65.0 16.0 38.0 39.4 665 38 34
[24] LHS (Wise 2000) Triamcinolone 600 μg bid 156 559 56.2 36.0 90.5 68.5 559 15 NR
Placebo -   557 56.4 37.9 89.8 67.2 557 19 NR
[39] Zheng 2007 SFC 50/500 μg bid 24 297 66.0 9.4 21.0 47.0b 297 2 NR
Placebo -   148 66.6 13.5 23.0 47.0b 148 0 NR
[48] Zhong 2012 Budesonide + Formoterol 320/9 μg bid 26 156 65.7 1.9 NR 36.2 156 1 NR
Budesonide 400 μg bid   152 64.7 7.9 NR 36.3 152 0 NR
  1. FEV1 – mean % predicted, post-bronchodilator
  2. *Powered to detect mortality
  3. aMean % predicted FEV1 is pre-bronchodilator
  4. bNot stated whether mean % predicted FEV1 is pre-bronchodilator or post-bronchodilator
  5. cFEV1 is mean of the three treatment arms