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Table 6 Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression on mortality in the subsequent period

From: Change in forced vital capacity and associated subsequent outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  Mortalitya
  Hazard ratio (95 % CI) P-value*
Race
 White vs. non-white 0.70 (0.39–1.26) 0.231
Lung-function decline group
 Marginal decline vs. stable 2.38 (1.04–5.45) 0.036*
 Significant decline vs. stable 4.42 (2.01–9.71) <0.001*
BMI
 25–30 vs. < 25 0.53 (0.29–0.97) 0.038*
 ≥30 vs. < 25 0.38 (0.18–0.80) 0.012*
Comorbidities
 Cardiac disorder vs. no cardiac disorder 1.63 (0.94–2.82) 0.080
 Pulmonary hypertension vs. no pulmonary hypertension 2.53 (1.33–4.80) 0.005*
 Emphysema vs. no emphysema 1.49 (0.67–3.35) 0.328
 Gastroesophageal reflux disease vs. no gastroesophageal reflux disease 1.10 (0.64–1.92) 0.725
Smoking status
 History of smoking vs. no history of smoking 1.08 (0.64–1.83) 0.773
Suspected AEx in the concurrent period
 Yes vs. no 2.59 (1.49–4.53) <0.001*
Use of prednisone and azathioprine in the concurrent period
 Both vs. neither 2.48 (1.19–5.19) 0.016*
 Prednisone only vs. neither 1.41 (0.66–3.01) 0.376
 Azathioprine only vs. neither 1.11 (0.18–7.01) 0.909
Symptoms at initial IPF diagnosis
 Dyspnea vs. no dyspnea 1.29 (0.48–3.48) 0.609
 Weight loss vs. no weight loss 1.95 (1.02–3.73) 0.044*
Physician's main practice setting
 Academic vs. non-academic 0.95 (0.51–1.77) 0.876
GAP index (per unit increase)b 1.19 (0.98–1.44) 0.080
  1. aMultivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio, 95 % confidence interval and p-value, accounting for physician clustering using generalized estimating equations
  2. bThe hazard ratio for the GAP index was estimated for every one point increase in GAP index
  3. *P-values less than 0.05 are indicated with an asterisk (*)