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Table 2 Baseline characteristics in relation to quartiles of FEV1%predicted: Females (n = 7416)

From: The temporal relationship between poor lung function and the risk of diabetes

  Overall Q4 Q3 Q2 Q1 P value for trend
FEV1%predicted 95.4 (±18.1) 116.9 (±10.2) 101.3 (±3.0) 90.9 (±3.2) 72.5 (±11.9)
Number (n) 7416 1854 1854 1854 1854
Age (years) 47.6 (±7.8) 48.0 (±6.6) 46.9 (±7.8) 46.6 (±8.6) 48.8 (±8.1) 0.023
Height (m) 1.64 (±0.06) 1.64 (±0.06) 1.64 (±0.06) 1.64 (±0.06) 1.64 (±0.06) 0.868
Current-smokers (%) 45.2 27.0 38.8 48.4 66.6 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.8 (±3.9) 23.8 (±3.5) 23.7 (±3.7) 23.7 (±3.9) 24.0 (±4.4) 0.135
Physical inactivity (%) 43.3 36.6 40.6 45.0 51.0 <0.001
 - Missing data (%) 12.2 11.2 13.9 14.5 9.2
Anti-hypertensive medication (%) 6.6 5.0 6.5 6.3 8.6 <0.001
High alcohol consumption (%) 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.9 3.1 0.150
ESR (mm/h)a 7.47 6.99 7.13 7.48 8.36 <0.001
Baseline glucose (mmol/L) 4.74 (±0.52) 4.70 (±0.52) 4.74 (±0.51) 4.75 (±0.53) 4.79 (±0.53) <0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.67 (±1.10) 5.64 (±1.07) 5.62 (±1.08) 5.62 (±1.11) 5.79 (±1.12) <0.001
Family history of diabetes (%) 16.0 16.0 16.1 15.2 16.7 0.788
Social class (%)       0.785
 - Low skilled 44.9 42.2 43.8 45.0 48.5
 - High skilled 45.4 48.5 48.2 45.4 39.5
 - Self-employed 2.9 3.1 2.3 3.2 3.0
 - Other 6.8 6.3 5.8 6.4 8.9
  1. Q Quartile, FEV 1 Forced expiratory volume 1 s, BMI body mass index, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Data consist of mean (±standard deviation) unless otherwise stated. aGeometric mean presented for ESR. Linear by linear association for chi square tests used for p value for categorical variables, ANOVA test for linearity used for p value for continuous variables