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Table 3 Hazard ratios of diabetes mellitus by quartiles of FEV1%predicted in males: stratified by follow-up time (years) (n = 20,295)

From: The temporal relationship between poor lung function and the risk of diabetes

follow-up time (years) (n = number of incident DM events)   Q4 (reference) Q3 Q2 Q1 P value for trend
   ≥106.34 95.57–106.34 84.65–95.57 ≤84.65  
Overall follow-up time (n = 3753) Unadjusted risk 1.00 1.13 (1.02–1.24)* 1.26 (1.15–1.39)*** 1.77 (1.61–1.94)*** <0.001
Adjusted riska 1.00 1.06 (0.97–1.17) 1.15 (1.05–1.27)** 1.48 (1.35–1.63)*** <0.001
0–10 years (n = 365) Unadjusted risk 1.00 1.09 (0.78–1.54) 1.25 (0.90–1.74) 2.41 (1.80–3.23)*** <0.001
Adjusted riska 1.00 0.99 (0.70–1.38 1.06 (0.76–1.47) 1.64 (1.21–2.22)** <0.001
10–20 years (n = 1059) Unadjusted risk 1.00 1.05 (0.87–1.27) 1.25 (1.04–1.50)* 1.94 (1.64–2.30)*** <0.001
Adjusted riska 1.00 0.98 (0.81–1.19) 1.12 (0.93–1.35) 1.52 (1.27–1.81)*** <0.001
20–30 years (n = 1984) Unadjusted risk 1.00 1.18 (1.04–1.34)* 1.30 (1.15–1.48)*** 1.59 (1.40–1.81)*** <0.001
Adjusted risk*a 1.00 1.12 (0.98–1.27) 1.20 (1.05–1.36)** 1.39 (1.22–1.59)*** <0.001
>30 years (n = 345) Unadjusted risk 1.00 1.08 (0.80–1.46) 1.10 (0.81–1.50) 1.59 (1.18–2.13)** 0.004
Adjusted riska 1.00 1.06 (0.79–1.44) 1.06 (0.77–1.44) 1.46 (1.08–1.97)* 0.023
  1. aAdjusted for: age, height, BMI, smoking status, ESR (log transformed), baseline glucose, cholesterol, physical activity, BP medication, social class, family history of diabetes, and alcohol abuse. *p <0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p <0.001 P value for trend calculated using cox regression models (1 d.f)