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Table 4 Hazard ratios of diabetes mellitus by quartiles of FEV1%predicted in females: stratified by follow-up time (years) (n = 7416)

From: The temporal relationship between poor lung function and the risk of diabetes

follow-up time (years) (n = number of incident DM events)   Q4 (reference) Q3 Q2 Q1 P value for trend
   ≥106.67 96.13–106.67 85.14–96.12 ≤85.13  
Overall follow-up time (n = 993) Unadjusted risk 1.00 1.34 (1.11–1.62)** 1.40 (1.16–1.70)*** 1.94 (1.62–2.33)*** <0.001
Adjusted riska 1.00 1.26 (1.04–1.53)* 1.26 (1.04–1.53)* 1.45 (1.20–1.75)*** <0.001
0–10 years (n = 135) Unadjusted risk 1.00 2.19 (1.23–3.89)** 2.09 (1.17–3.72)* 2.77 (1.59–4.83)*** 0.001
Adjusted riska 1.00 2.00 (1.12–3.58)* 1.72 (0.95–3.11) 1.68 (0.94–3.01) 0.275
10–20 years (n = 395) Unadjusted risk 1.00 1.38 (1.01–1.87)* 1.44 (1.06–1.95)* 2.00 (1.50–2.67)*** <0.001
Adjusted riska 1.00 1.33 (0.98–1.81) 1.37 (1.01–1.87)* 1.51 (1.11–2.05)** 0.012
20–30 years (n = 419) Unadjusted risk 1.00 1.13 (0.85–1.50) 1.33 (1.01–1.75)* 1.73 (1.32–2.28)*** <0.001
Adjusted riska 1.00 1.04 (0.78–1.39) 1.16 (0.87–1.54) 1.32 (0.99–1.76) 0.043
>30 years (n = 44) Unadjusted risk 1.00 1.49 (0.60–3.69) 0.73 (0.26–2.00) 1.91 (0.78–4.70) 0.355
Adjusted riska 1.00 1.58 (0.63–3.94) 0.79 (0.28–2.20) 2.35 (0.93–5.90) 0.186
  1. aAdjusted for: age, height, BMI, smoking status, ESR (log transformed), baseline glucose, cholesterol, physical activity, BP medication, social class, family history of diabetes, and alcohol abuse. *p <0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001. P value for trend calculated using cox regression models (1 d.f)