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Table 2 Predominant bacteria according to the bacterial floral analysis of 16S rRNA gene and cultivation methods

From: The significance of oral streptococci in patients with pneumonia with risk factors for aspiration: the bacterial floral analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

  Total Presence of risk factors for aspiration Absence of risk factors for aspiration  
Clone Library Method   Culture Clone Library Method   Culture Clone Library Method Culture  
The predominant phylotypes in BALF BALF Sputum The predominant phylotypes in BALF BALF Sputum The predominant phylotypes in BALF BALF Sputum
Gram-positive pathogens          
Streptococcus pneumoniae 23 (12.8) 21 (11.7) 12 (13.0) 10 (11.9) 7 (8.0) 5 (12.0) 13 (13.7) 14 (15.2) 7 (13.7)
Streptococcus spp. 40 (22.3) 9 (5.0) 6 (6.5) 26 (31.0) 4 (4.5) 2 (4.8) 14 (14.7) 5 (5.4) 4 (7.8)
  Streptococcus anginosus group 5 (2.8) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 5 (6.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  Other Streptococcus spp. 35 (19.6) 8 (4.4) 6 (6.5) 21 (25.0) 3 (3.4) 2 (4.8) 14 (14.7) 5 (5.4) 4 (7.8)
Staphylococcus aureus 8 (4.5) 21 (11.7) 15 (16.1) 4 (4.8) 11 (12.5) 8 (19.0) 4 (4.2) 10 (10.9) 7 (13.7)
   Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus 7 (3.9) 4 (4.3) 5 (5.7) 1 (2.4) 2 (2.2) 3 (5.9)
   Methicillin-resistant S. aureus 14 (7.8) 11 (11.8) 6 (6.8) 7 (16.7) 8 (8.7) 4 (7.8)
Staphylococcus spp. (except S. aureus) 2 (1.1) 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.1) 2 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
Corynebacterium spp. 6 (3.4) 2 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 5 (6.0) 1 (1.1) 1 (2.4) 1 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
Gemella spp. 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Lactobacillus spp. 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Rothia spp. 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Gram-negative pathogens
Haemophilus spp. 28 (15.6) 23 (12.8) 10 (10.8) 14 (16.7) 8 (9.1) 5 (12.0) 14 (14.7) 15 (16.3) 5 (9.8)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10 (5.6) 18 (10.0) 9 (9.7) 2 (2.4) 8 (9.1) 3 (7.1) 8 (8.4) 10 (10.9) 6 (11.8)
Pseudomonas spp. (except P. aeruginosa) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 1 (2.0)
Moraxella spp. 8 (4.5) 7 (3.9) 4 (4.3) 5 (6.0) 5 (5.7) 1 (2.4) 3 (3.2) 2 (2.2) 3 (5.9)
Neisseria spp. 5 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (4.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Klebsiella spp 4 (2.2) 12 (6.7) 6 (6.5) 3 (3.6) 10 (11.4) 6 (14.3) 1 (1.1) 2 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
Escherichia coli 2 (1.1) 5 (2.8) 2 (2.2) 2 (2.4) 5 (5.7) 2 (4.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Enterobacter spp. 1 (0.6) 2 (1.1) 2 (2.2) 1 (1.2) 2 (2.3) 1 (2.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.0)
Acinetobacter spp. 0 (0.0) 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
Citrobacter spp. 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 1 (2.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Serratia spp. 0 (0.0) 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Burkholderia spp. 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
Proteus spp. 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Pasteurella spp. 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
Anaerobic pathogens 22 (12.3) 8 (4.4) 0 (0.0) 5 (6.0) 5 (5.7) 0 (0.0) 17 (17.9) 3 (3.3) 0 (0.0)
Prevotella spp. 11 (6.1) 3 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 4 (4.8) 2 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 7 (7.4) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
Fusobacterium spp. 5 (2.8) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (4.2) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
Micromonas spp. 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Propionibacterium spp. 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Veillonella spp. 1 (0.6) 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Porphyromonas spp 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Peptostreptococcus spp. 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
Clostridium spp. 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Atypical pathogens
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 14 (7.8) 2 (2.4) 12 (12.6)
Legionella pneumonia 1 (0.6) 1 (1.2) 0 (0.0)
Actinomyces spp. 0 (0.0) 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.2) 0 (0.0)
Nocardia spp. 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0)
Oral bacteria 37 (20.9) 24 (25.8) 16 (18.2) 7 (16.7) 21 (22.8) 17 (33.3)
No growth 32 (18.1) 4 (4.7) 15 (18.1) 1 (2.8) 17 (18.1) 3 (6.0)
Not analysed 91 (51.4) 47 (56.6) 44 (46.8)
Total isolates 179a 180 93 84b 88 42 95c 92 51
  1. Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise stated. Percentages refer to the total number of isolates except “No growth” and “Not analysed”. “No growth” and “Not analysed” refer to the total number of cases. Definition of abbreviations: BALF: bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. a179 isolates of 177 cases (2 cases had two first predominant bacterial species.).b84 isolates of 83 cases.c95 isolates of 94 cases