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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study population (n = 377)

From: Factors responsible for poor sleep quality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Characteristics Mean ± SD
Age, years 73.0 ± 10.1
Male sex, n (%) 371 (98.4 %)
BMI, (kg/m2) 23.6 ± 3.0
Smoking history
 Never smoker, n (%) 22 (6.0 %)
 Ex-smoker, n (%) 232 (63.0 %)
 Current smoker, n (%) 114 (31 %)
FEV1, L 1.4 ± 0.5
FEV1, predicted % 59.8 ± 23.0
Exacerbation in previous year, times 0.6 ± 1.2
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular disease, n (%) 157 (41.6 %)
 Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 35 (9.3 %)
 Heart failure, n (%) 15 (4.0 %)
 Hypertension, n (%) 129 (34.2 %)
 Arrhythmia, n (%) 19 (5.0 %)
 Depression, n (%) 10 (2.7 %)
Maintenance inhaler
 LABA, n (%) 18 (4.8 %)
 LAMA, n (%) 87 (23.1 %)
 LABA/LAMA, n (%) 21 (5.6 %)
 LABA/ICS, n (%) 72 (19.1 %)
 LAMA/ICS, n (%) 3 (0.8 %)
 LABA/LAMA/ICS, n (%) 90 (23.9 %)
 No maintenance inhaler, n (%) 86 (22.8 %)
GOLD classification
 Group A, n (%) 60 (15.9 %)
 Group B, n (%) 150 (39.8 %)
 Group C, n (%) 34 (9.0 %)
 Group D, n (%) 133 (35.3 %)
PSQI score
 PSQI >5, n (%) 200 (53.1 %)
 PSQI5, n (%) 177 (46.9 %)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in the first second, FVC forced vital capacity, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, LABA long-acting beta agonists, LAMA long-acting muscarinic antagonist, PSQI Pittsburgh sleep quality index