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Table 7 Variables associated with poor sleep quality among patients with COPD

From: Factors responsible for poor sleep quality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Characteristics Parameter estimate Standard error Odds ratio (95 % CI) P-value
Univariate analysis
 Age 0.006 0.010 1.01 (0.99,1.03) 0.563
 BMI 0.027 0.026 1.03 (0.98,1.08) 0.311
 FEV1, predicted % −0.003 0.004 1.00 (0.99,1.01) 0.555
 Wheezing* 0.509 0.228 1.66 (1.06,2.60) 0.026
 Theophylline 0.134 0.515 1.14 (0.42,3.14) 0.794
 Oral steroids −0.281 0.218 0.76 (0.49,1.16) 0.197
 Inhaled LABA −0.363 0.486 0.70 (0.27,1.80) 0.455
 Inhaled LAMA −0.369 0.245 0.69 (0.43,1.12) 0.133
 Inhaled ICS* 0.412 0.210 1.51 (1.00,2.28) 0.049
 Ischemic heart disease 0.312 0.362 1.37 (0.67,2.77) 0.389
 Heart failure −0.549 0.537 0.58 (0.20,1.66) 0.307
 Hypertension 0.409 0.220 1.50 (0.98,2.32) 0.063
 Arrhythmia 0.438 0.487 1.55 (0.60,4.03) 0.368
 Depression 1.294 0.797 3.65 (0.76,17.4) 0.105
 Anxiety −0.124 0.823 0.88 (0.18,4.43) 0.880
 CAT score* 0.085 0.017 1.09 (1.05,1.13) <0.001
 mMRC score* 0.264 0.125 1.30 (1.02,1.66) 0.035
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in the first second, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, LABA long-acting beta agonist, LAMA long-acting muscarinic antagonist, CAT COPD assessment test, mMRC modified Medical Research Council, CI confidence interval
  2. *p < 0.05