Skip to main content

Table 2 Daily nutrient intake of all subjects by tertiles of dietary patterns

From: Dietary patterns are associated with lung function among Spanish smokers without respiratory disease

Nutrient intake Alcohol-consumption pattern Westernised pattern Mediterranean-like pattern
Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3
Energy intake, Kcal 2410.9 ± 319.2 2480.6 ± 296.1 2466.5 ± 269.7 2369.6 ± 267.2 2420.4 ± 276.8 2568.0 ± 308.9#,¥ 2267.8 ± 215.1 2409.7 ± 237.6* 2680.7 ± 270.2#,¥
Carbohydrate, g 267.7 ± 58.3 268.3 ± 54.4 254.3 ± 42.7 251.7 ± 46.3 259.0 ± 50.5 279.6 ± 56.4#,¥ 239.6 ± 41.0 258.3 ± 48.1 292.5 ± 53.4#,¥
Protein, g 83.1 ± 11.2 87.4 ± 10.6 86.5 ± 11.8 84.1 ± 11,6 84.2 ± 10.3 88.7 ± 11.7#,¥ 77.0 ± 7.7 84.2 ± 7.5* 95.8 ± 9.7#,¥
Fat, g 107.7 ± 8.1 112.2 ± 8.4* 113.3 ± 9.9# 108.1 ± 8.7 109.8 ± 8.4 115.4 ± 8.7#,¥ 104.5 ± 5.7 109.9 ± 6.1* 119.0 ± 8.7#,¥
SF, mg 30.8 ± 3.6 32.7 ± 3.7* 32.6 ± 4.1# 30.5 ± 3.7 31.6 ± 3.4 34.2 ± 3.6#,¥ 29.7 ± 2.6 31.6 ± 3.2* 35.0 ± 3.8#,¥
MUFA, mg 56.8 ± 3.1 58.6 ± 3.2* 59.4 ± 3.9# 56.9 ± 3.3 57.8 ± 3.3 60.0 ± 3.4#,¥ 55.7 ± 2.2 57.8 ± 2.3* 61.2 ± 3.4#,¥
PUFA, mg 11.8 ± 1.0 12.3 ± 1.1 12.7 ± 1.4# 12.2 ± 1.2 12.1 ± 1.2 12.5 ± 1.2 11.4 ± 0.7 12.1 ± 0.7* 13.3 ± 1.1#,¥
Cholesterol, mg 323.6 ± 61.2 356.2 ± 54.8* 365.3 ± 78.8# 332.3 ± 66.1 337.9 ± 67.9 374.8 ± 62.2#,¥ 313.3 ± 48.7 334.1 ± 48.6 397.8 ± 72.6#,¥
Fibre, g 18.8 ± 3.5 18.7 ± 3.5 18.6 ± 3.2 19.4 ± 3.4 18.3 ± 3.4 18.4 ± 3.5 16.4 ± 2.6 18.5 ± 2.8* 21.2 ± 3.0#,¥
Alcohol, g 5.51 ± 3.8 6.83 ± 4.0 11.93 ± 6.3#,¥ 7.46 ± 5.1 8.55 ± 5.5 8.26 ± 6.1 8.95 ± 5.6 7.23 ± 5.1 8.09 ± 5.9
Mg, mg 277.6 ± 40.9 286.6 ± 41.5 299.3 ± 43.2# 285.9 ± 44.8 280.6 ± 40.5 297.0 ± 41.3 256,2 ± 29.3 283.0 ± 28.8* 324.4 ± 37.7#,¥
Ca, mg 848.1 ± 198.3 863.8 ± 175.5 938.1 ± 170.1# 867.8 ± 208.3 866.5 ± 178.3 915.7 ± 164.1 806.5 ± 165.8 873.7 ± 179.4 969.7 ± 174.3#,¥
Fe, mg 11.8 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 1.7 12.4 ± 1.7 11.8 ± 1.8 11.8 ± 1.7* 12.5 ± 1.8#,¥ 10.6 ± 1.1 11.8 ± 1.1* 13.7 ± 1.5#,¥
β-carotene, mg 2241.1 ± 507.3 2210.7 ± 584.9 2178.3 ± 539.9 2549.2 ± 522.8 2162.5 ± 488.7 1918.3 ± 418.8#,¥ 1879.2 ± 431.8 2270.2 ± 499.1* 2480.7 ± 518.0#,¥
Retinol, mcg 504.2 ± 111.9 559.1 ± 106.5* 552.4 ± 107.6# 497.6 ± 91.6 527.7 ± 102.3 590.4 ± 117.8#,¥ 493.5 ± 69.7 527.0 ± 106.4 595.3 ± 125.0#,¥
Folate, ng 289.7 ± 47.4 296.1 ± 51.3 302.6 ± 51.6 314.9 ± 54.4 290.3 ± 47.2* 283.2 ± 43.3# 260.3 ± 35.4 291.4 ± 33.5* 336.7 ± 47.4*
Vitamin B1, mg 1.32 ± 0.2 1.39 ± 0.2 1.42 ± 0.2# 1.34 ± 0.2 1.37 ± 0.2 1.41 ± 0.2 1.24 ± 0.2 1.36 ± 0.1* 1.54 ± 0.2#,¥
Vitamin B6, mg 1.90 ± 0.3 1.94 ± 0.3 1.99 ± 0.3 1.97 ± 0.3 1.91 ± 0.3 1.95 ± 0.3 1.73 ± 0.2 1.91 ± 0.2* 2.18 ± 0.2#,¥
Vitamin B12, mg 6.58 ± 1.1 7.04 ± 1.1* 7.03 ± 1.1 6.68 ± 1.1 6.72 ± 1.0 7.25 ± 1.2#,¥ 6.29 ± 0.8 6.74 ± 0.9* 7.63 ± 1.2#,¥
Vitamin C, mg 98.1 ± 25.5 97.9 ± 30.6 97.2 ± 26.2 114.4 ± 26.5 92.6 ± 26.5* 86.1 ± 20.6# 81.3 ± 22.0 97.8 ± 24.8* 114.1 ± 25.0#,¥
Vitamin D, mcg 2.96 ± 0.7 2.87 ± 0.7 2.73 ± 0.7 3.19 ± 0.7 2.71 ± 0.6* 2.66 ± 0.7#,¥ 2.60 ± 0.6 2.72 ± 0.5 3.25 ± 0.8#,¥
Vitamin E, mg 11.0 ± 0.8 11.3 ± 1.0 11.6 ± 1.2# 11.5 ± 1.1 11.1 ± 1.0* 11.2 ± 1.0 10.5 ± 0.6 11.2 ± 0.7* 12.1 ± 1.0#,¥
  1. Data are presented as median ± standard deviation (SD)
  2. Abbreviations: SF saturated fatty acid, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, Mg magnesium, Ca calcium, Fe iron
  3. (*) p-value ≤ 0.05. Analysis of variance has been performed, and compares tertile 1 (lowest) and tertile 2 (medium)
  4. (#) p-value ≤ 0.05. Analysis of variance has been performed, and compares tertile 1 (lowest) and tertile 3 (highest)
  5. (¥) p-value ≤ 0.05. Analysis of variance has been performed, and compares tertile 2 (medium) and tertile 3 (highest