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Table 3 General characteristics of subjects according to tertiles of major dietary patterns

From: Dietary patterns are associated with lung function among Spanish smokers without respiratory disease

  Alcohol-consumption pattern Westernised pattern Mediterranean-like pattern
Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3
All, n = 207
Subjects (%) 69 (33.3) 69 (33.3) 69 (33.3) 69 (33.3) 69 (33.3) 69 (33.3) 69 (33.3) 69 (33.3) 69 (33.3)
Age (year) 49.7 ± 8.4 50.7 ± 8.6 51.8 ± 9.9 53.4 ± 8.6 52.2 ± 8.1 46.6 ± 8.8#,¥ 52.5 ± 9.0 50.5 ± 8.2 49.1 ± 9.5
Anthropometric measures
 Weight (kg) Weight (kg) 75.6 ± 15.7 73.9 ± 18.5 74.3 ± 15.0 76.5 ± 15.9 74.5 ± 16.1 72.9 ± 17.2 74.2 ± 16.2 77.4 ± 16.0 72.2 ± 17.0
 Height (cm) 162.3 ± 9.2 163.9 ± 9.9 166.5 ± 9.0# 162.4 ± 9.2 164.0 ± 9.7 166.2 ± 9.3 163.1 ± 9.8 165.0 ± 10.0 164.6 ± 8.6
 BMI (kg/m2) 28.7 ± 5.2 27.4 ± 5.7 26.7 ± 4.5 28.9 ± 5.1 27.6 ± 4.8 26.3 ± 5.4# 27.8 ± 4.9 28.4 ± 5.3 26.5 ± 5.2
 Waist circumference (cm) 96.8 ± 13.8 93.7 ± 14.1 94.7 ± 12.1 97.4 ± 12.8 95.9 ± 13.2 91.9 ± 13.7# 96.3 ± 12.5 96.6 ± 14.3 92.4 ± 13.0
Socioeconomic status
 Low 24 (34.8) 28 (40.5) 21 (30.4) 25 (36.2) 24 (34.7) 24 (34.7) 24 (34.7) 22 (31.8) 27 (39.1)
 Medium 32 (46.4) 27 (39.1) 25 (36.2) 32 (46.3) 29 (42.0) 23 (33.3) 24 (34.8) 35 (50.7) 25 (36.2)
 High 3 (4.3) 8 (11.6) 16 (23.2) 9 (13.0) 8 (11.6) 10 (14.5) 14 (20.3) 5 (7.2) 8 (11.6)
Physical Activity
 Sedentary 36 (52.2) 32 (46.4) 35 (50.7) 36 (52.2) 34 (49.3) 33 (47.8) 42 (60.9) 36 (52.2) 25 (36.2)
 Moderate 27 (39.1) 33 (47.8) 28 (40.6) 26 (37.7) 33 (47.8) 29 (42.0) 26 (37.7) 24 (34.8) 38 (55.1)
 Intense 6 (8.7) 4 (5.8) 6 (8.7) 7 (10.1) 2 (2.9) 7 (10.1) 1 (1.4) 9 (13.0) 6 (8.7)
Smoking
 Cumulative consumption (packets-year) 27.8 ± 17.1 25.4 ± 13.4 28.0 ± 18.0 26.9 ± 16.9 29.4 ± 15.7 24.8 ± 16.0 29.0 ± 15.3 28.1 ± 15.9 24.1 ± 17.3
Lung function parameters
 FVC, % of predicted 94.8 ± 14.9 94.3 ± 19.2 89.6 ± 17.0 92.4 ± 17.2 91.2 ± 15.7 95.1 ± 18.6 92.2 ± 17.8 93.6 ± 18.2 92.9 ± 15.6
 FEV1, % of predicted 98.9 ± 14.7 97.3 ± 19.2 93.1 ± 19.2 96.9 ± 18.3 95.7 ± 17.4 96.8 ± 18.3 95.7 ± 19.3 96.6 ± 18.5 97.0 ± 16.0
 FEV1/FVC ratio (%) 80.1 ± 6.6 78.8 ± 6.1 78.7 ± 8.0 79.4 ± 6.9 79.5 ± 6.7 78.7 ± 7.3 78.7 ± 6.7 78.7 ± 6.6 80.3 ± 7.5
Women, n = 116
 Subjects (%) 49 (42.2) 40 (34.5) 27 (23.3) 45 (38.8) 38 (32.8) 33 (28.4) 41 (35.3) 37 (31.9) 38 (32.8)
 Age (year) 49.1 ± 9.0 50.4 ± 7.9 49.9 ± 9.1 51.5 ± 8.4 51.5 ± 8.1 45.2 ± 7.8#,¥ 51.0 ± 9.1 51.2 ± 6.6 46.9 ± 9.1
Anthropometric measures
 Weight (kg) 71.6 ± 12.9 65.2 ± 14.2 63.1 ± 11.8# 70.4 ± 14.6 67.4 ± 13.3 63.5 ± 11.6 68.6 ± 14.0 70.8 ± 15.1 62.9 ± 10.2
 Height (cm) 158.3 ± 7.1 158.5 ± 7.9 158.6 ± 4.6 158.1 ± 7.9 158.3 ± 7.0 159.1 ± 5.2 157.6 ± 7.1 159.0 ± 7.7 158.9 ± 5.8
 BMI (kg/m2) 28.6 ± 5.0 26.1 ± 5.8 25.1 ± 4.5# 28.2 ± 5.5 27.0 ± 5.4 25.2 ± 4.9# 27.6 ± 5.2 28.2 ± 6.2 25.0 ± 4.2
 Waist circumference (cm) 95.4 ± 13.4 89.8 ± 13.8 88.4 ± 11.7 94.2 ± 13.4 93.2 ± 13.3 87.0 ± 12.9 93.6 ± 13.1 93.8 ± 14.9 88.0 ± 11.7
Socioeconomic status
 Low 16 (32.6) 15 (37.5) 11 (40.7) 17 (37.7) 13 (34.3) 12 (36.4) 14 (34.2) 11 (29.7) 17 (44.7)
 Medium 24 (49.0) 16 (40) 6 (22.2) 20 (44.4) 17 (44.8) 9 (27.3) 16 (39) 17 (45.9) 16 (39)
 High 2 (4.0) 5 (12.5) 5 (18.5) 6 (13.3) 2 (5.3) 4 (12.1) 7 (17.1) 2 (5.4) 7 (17.1)
Physical Activity
 Sedentary 29 (59.2) 22 (55.0) 17 (63.0) 26 (57.8) 24 (63.2) 18 (54.5) 27 (65.9) 28 (75.7) 27 (65.9)
 Moderate 18 (36.7) 16 (40.0) 9 (33.3) 16 (35.6) 14 (36.8) 13 (39.4) 13 (31.7) 8 (21.6) 13 (31.7)
 Intense 2 (4.1) 2 (5.0) 1 (3.7) 3 (6.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (6.1) 1 (2.4) 1 (2.7) 1 (2.4)
Smoking
 Cumulative consumption (packets-year) 24.0 ± 14.6 23.8 ± 11.1 22.8 ± 15.3 24.0 ± 15.0 25.8 ± 12.8 20.8 ± 12.1 24.5 ± 11.9 24.8 ± 12.7 21.6 ± 15.8
Lung function parameters
 FVC, % 95.9 ± 15.4 98.9 ± 20.6 93.3 ± 16.6 97.8 ± 16.4 94.1 ± 14.9 96.9 ± 21.9 96.4 ± 17.9 97.8 ± 17.8 94.8 ± 17.4
 FEV1, % 100.1 ± 15.4 100.3 ± 20.7 96.8 ± 22.1 102.3 ± 17.4 98.0 ± 17.9 97.0 ± 21.7 99.8 ± 20.1 99.2 ± 18.9 99.2 ± 17.9
 FEV1/FVC ratio (%) 80.7 ± 7.3 78.1 ± 7.0 79.3 ± 9.6 80.1 ± 7.7 79.4 ± 7.6 78.6 ± 8.4 79.2 ± 7.7 77.6 ± 7.4 81.5 ± 8.1
Men, n = 91
 Subjects (%) 20 (22.0) 29 (31.9) 42 (46.2) 24 (26.4) 31 (34.1) 36 (39.6) 28 (30.8) 32 (35.2) 31 (34.1)
 Age (year) 51.2 ± 6.7 51.1 ± 9.7 53.1 ± 10.4 56.9 ± 8.0 53.0 ± 8.2 47.9 ± 9.6# 54.9 ± 8.5 49.6 ± 9.8 51.9 ± 9.4
Anthropometric measures
 Weight (kg) 85.4 ± 17.9 85.8 ± 17.2 81.5 ± 12.2 87.9 ± 11.7 83.2 ± 15.0 81.5 ± 17.2 82.5 ± 15.8 85.0 ± 13.5 83.6 ± 16.6
 Height (cm) 172.0 ± 6.0 171.2 ± 7.3 171.5 ± 7.3 170.5 ± 4.9 171.0 ± 7.9 172.7 ± 7.3 171.1 ± 7.4 171.9 ± 7.6 171.5 ± 6.1
 BMI (kg/m2) 28.8 ± 5.6 29.2 ± 5.1 27.8 ± 4.2 30.3 ± 3.8 28.3 ± 4.0 27.3 ± 5.7 28.1 ± 4.5 28.8 ± 4.2 28.4 ± 5.7
 Waist circumference (cm) 100.4 ± 14.6 99.1 ± 12.8 98.8 ± 10.6 103.4 ± 9.1 99.3 ± 12.5 96.4 ± 13.0 100.1 ± 10.6 99.9 ± 13.0 97.7 ± 12.7
Socioeconomic status
 Low 8 (40.0) 13 (44.8) 10 (23.8) 8 (33.4) 11 (35.5) 13 (33.3) 10 (35.7) 11 (34.7) 10 (32.3)
 Medium 8 (40.0) 11 (37.9) 19 (45.2) 12 (50.0) 12 (38.7) 14 (38.9) 8 (28.6) 18 (56.2) 12 (38.8)
 High 1 (5.0) 3 (10.3) 11 (26.2) 3 (12.5) 6 (19.4) 6 (16.7) 7 (25) 3 (9.4) 5 (16.2)
Physical Activity
 Sedentary 7 (35.0) 10 (34.5) 18 (42.9) 10 (41.7) 10 (32.3) 15 (41.7) 15 (53.6) 8 (25.0) 12 (38.7)
 Moderate 9 (45.0) 17 (58.6) 19 (45.2) 10 (41.7) 19 (61.3) 16 (44.4) 13 (46.4) 16 (50.0) 16 (51.6)
 Intense 4 (20.0) 2 (6.9) 5 (11.9) 4 (16.7) 2 (6.5) 5 (13.9) 0 (0.0) 8 (25.0) 3 (9.7)
Smoking
 Cumulative consumption (packets-year) 37.1 ± 19.6 27.6 ± 16.0 31.3 ± 19.0 32.4 ± 19.2 33.9 ± 17.9 28.5 ± 18.4 35.6 ± 17.4 31.9 ± 18.5 27.1 ± 18.7
Lung function parameters
 FVC, % of predicted 92.1 ± 13.3 87.9 ± 15.4 87.2 ± 17.0 82.3 ± 14.1 87.6 ± 16.1 93.4 ± 15.2# 86.0 ± 16.1 88.8 ± 17.7 90.5 ± 13.1
 FEV1, % of predicted 96.1 ± 12.7 93.2 ± 16.5 90.7 ± 17.0 86.7 ± 15.6 92.8 ± 16.5 96.5 ± 14.9 89.7 ± 16.7 93.6 ± 17.9 94.4 ± 13.0
 FEV1/FVC ratio (%) 78.8 ± 4.3 79.9 ± 4.5 78.3 ± 6.9 78.1 ± 5.2 79.6 ± 5.5 78.8 ± 6.3 77.9 ± 4.8 80.0 ± 5.4 78.7 ± 6.7
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation (DS) or median ± range depending on the type of variable
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FVC forced vital capacity % of predicted, FEV1 maximum expiratory volume in the first second of a forced exhalation % of predicted
  3. (*) p-value ≤ 0.05. Analysis of variance has been performed, and compares tertile 1 (lowest) and tertile 2 (medium)
  4. (#) p-value ≤ 0.05. Analysis of variance has been performed, and compares tertile 1 (lowest) and tertile 3 (highest)
  5. (¥) p-value ≤ 0.05. Analysis of variance has been performed, and compares tertile 2 (medium) and tertile 3 (highest)