Skip to main content

Table 3 Multivariate linear regression analysis of lung function and anthropometric parameters, overall and separately for men and women

From: Adiposity markers and lung function in smokers: a cross-sectional study in a Mediterranean population

Variables Male Female All
β 95% CI p values β 95% CI p values β 95% CI p values
FVC % Predicted
 Waist-to-height −61.48 −98.00, −24,96 0.001 −14.76 −36.94, 7.41 0.190 −26.8 −46.61, −6.93 0.002
 Waist circumference −0.39 −0.60, −0.18 <0.001 −0.07 −0.21 0.07 0.328 −0.22 −0.34, −0.10 <0.001
 BMI, continuous −0.79 −1.19, −0.39 <0.001 −0.37 −0.67, −0.07 0.016 −0.59 −0.83, −0.34 <0.001
BMI categorizationa
   < 25.0 kg/m2 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
  25.0–29.9 kg/m2 −4.67 −8.67, −0.66 0.023 −1.51 −4.94, 1.92 0.388 −4.21 −6.81, −1.60 0.002
   ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 −9.19 −13.82, −4.54 <0.001 −3.21 −7.45, 1.04 0.138 −67.25 −10.38, −4.13 <0.001
FEV1 % Predicted
 Waist-to-height −59.91 −102.94, −16.88 0.007 −2.99 −27.32, 21.34 0.808 −16.94 −39.77, 5.88 0.145
 Waist circumference −0.40 −0.65, −0.15 0.002 −0.02 −0.17, 0.13 0.787 −0.20 −0.33, −0.06 0.005
 BMI, continuous −0.52 −0.99, −0.05 0.029 −0.10 −0.41, 0.22 0.547 −0.32 −0.59, −0.04 0.024
BMI categorizationa
   < 25.0 kg/m2 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
  25.0–29.9 kg/m2 −0.78 −5.52, 3.96 0.609 1.43 −2.18, 5.04 0.436 −1.01 −3.95, 1.93 0.502
   ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 −5.39 −10.87, 0.99 0.054 0.08 −4.38, 4.54 0.971 −2.77 −6.25, 0.70 0.118
FEV1/FVC ratio
 Waist-to-height 1.13 −17.93, 20.20 0.907 11.58 1.46, 21.70 0.025 9.58 −0.16, 19.32 0.054
 Waist circumference 0.01 −0.10, 0.12 0.917 0.05 −0.01, 0.12 0.113 0.02 −0.04, 0.08 0.512
 BMI, continuous 0.24 0.11, 0.38 <0.001 0.31 0.11, 0.50 0.002 0.26 0.14, 0.37 <0.001
BMI categorizationa
   < 25.0 kg/m2 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
  25.0–29.9 kg/m2 3.76 1.79, 5.73 <0.001 2.23 0.71, 3.75 0.004 2.43 1.20, 3.65 <0.001
   ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 3.81 1.53, 6.09 0.001 3.10 1.17, 4.93 0.002 2.89 1.42, 4.36 <0.001
  1. Adjusted by social class, smoking cumulative consumption, physical activity, alcohol consumption, medical history hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia
  2. FVC Forced vital capacity, FEV1 Maximum expiratory volume in the first second of a forced exhalation; β: regression coefficient for each exposure variable, CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index
  3. aAccording to the WHO classifications of body weight: normal weight (<25.0 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2) [7]