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Table 1 Risk factors for inpatient-mortality among adults hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection, South Africa, 2010–2011 (N = 1356)

From: Development of a respiratory severity score for hospitalized adults in a high HIV-prevalence setting—South Africa, 2010–2011

Risk factor Cases with available data (N = 1356) Died N = 101, No. (%) Discharged N = 1255, No. (%) p-value* Unadjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
Age ≥ 45 years 1356 67 (66.3) 561 (44.7) <0.001 2.4 (1.6–3.7) 2.5 (1.4–4.2)
Male 1356 49 (48.5) 464 (37.0) 0.0214 1.6 (1.1–2.4) 0.8 (0.5–1.3)
Medical condition
 HIV 1325 87/98 (88.8) 932/1227 (76.0) 0.0038 2.5 (1.3–4.8) 2.9 (1.2–6.9)
 Asthma 1356 2 (2) 82 (6.5) 0.0678 0.3 (0.1–1.2)
 Diabetes 1356 3 (3) 43 (3.4) 1.0 0.9 (0.3–2.8)
 Cardiovascular§ 1356 2 (2) 41 (3.2) 0.77 0.6 (0.1–2.5)
 Emphysema 1356 1 (1) 22 (1.8) 1.0 0.6 (0.1–4.2)
 Cancer 1356 0 (0) 10 (0.8) 1.0 Not applicable
 Other¶ 1356 0 (0) 18 (1.4) 0.39 Not applicable
Clinical Data
 Confusion** 1356 14 (13.9) 24 (1.9) <0.001 8.3 (4.1–16.5) 7.6 (3.0–19.5)
 Received any supplemental oxygen 1356 35 (34.7) 200 (15.9) <0.001 2.8 (1.8–4.3) 2.0 (1.2–3.5)
 Temperature ≥38 °C 1328 20/99 (20.2) 299 (24.3) 0.355 0.8 (0.4–1.3)
 Respiratory Rate >20 breaths per minute 1333 36/100 (36.0) 462/1233 (37.5) 0.770 0.9 (0.6–1.4)
 Heart Rate ≥115 beats per minute 1347 50/100 (50.0) 493/1247 (39.5) 0.040 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 1.6 (0.9–2.7)
 Hypotension (Systolic <90 mmHg or diastolic ≤60 mmHg) 1352 24/101 (23.8) 249/1251 (19.9) 0.353 1.3 (0.8–2.0)
 Serum Sodium <135 mmol/L 1029 54/80 (67.5) 478/949 (50.4) 0.003 2.0 (1.3–3.3) 1.6 (0.9–2.8)
 Urea >7 mmol/L 1029 55/80 (68.8) 274/949 (28.9) <0.001 5.4 (3.3–8.9) 4.4 (2.5–7.6)
 Serum Creatinine ≥ 106.08 μmol/L 1028 34/80 (42.5) 190/948 (20.0) <0.001 2.9 (1.8–4.7) ††
  1. * p-value refers to chi-square or Fischer’s exact test for categorical variables and to a Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables
  2. Age (median, interquartile range, years) Died 45 (35–53) versus Discharged 38 (30–48) p >0.001
  3. §Includes cardiac and cerebrovascular disease
  4. Other includes liver disease, renal disease, spinal disorders, obesity, pregnancy, chemotherapy, autoimmune diseases, and seizure disorders
  5. **“Confusion” based on positive documentation in the medical chart. A no or lack of documentation in the medical chart was classified as “not confused”
  6. ††Not included in final multivariate analysis because it demonstrated co-linearity with urea