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Table 4 Baseline characteristics of patients who remained stable (GOLD B) and unstable patients (GOLD D) at 1 year

From: Characteristics and longitudinal progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in GOLD B patients

  Stable (n = 51) Unstable (n = 19) p - value
Demographics
 Gender (% Male) 72.5 52.6 0.15
 Pack years 45.0 [10.0–220.0] 52.0 [10.0–113.0] 0.67
 Smoking status (% Current) 37.3 36.8 1.00
 BMI (Kg/m2) 27.2 [17.3–49.2] 27.9 [20.7–45.0] 0.28
 FFMI (Kg/m2) 17.8 (3.4) 18.7 (3.4) 0.34
 Chronic bronchitis (%) 58.3 61.1 1.00
 Exacerbations (1 year prior) 0.0 [0.0–1.0] 0.0 [0.0–1.0] 0.88
Co-morbidities
 Cardiovascular comorbidity any (%) 94.1 94.7 1.00
 Comorbidities any (%) 94.1 94.7 1.00
Patient reported outcomes
 SGRQ total 40.1 [14.6–80.0] 50.0 [22.2–82.3] 0.019
 SGRQ symptoms 55.1 [22.0–91.0] 60.8 [15.4–90.0] 0.10
 SGRQ impact 26.0 [2.5–71.6] 35.9 [9.0–73.7] 0.20
 SGRQ activity 59.3 [7.6–100.0] 79.0 [15.6–100.0] 0.003
 CAT 14.0 [4.0–28.0] 21.0 [8.0–39.0] 0.006
 CES-D 11.0 [1.0–32.0] 12.5 [3.0–38.0] 0.94
Functional capacity
 6MWD (metres) 425.3 (98.5) 361.5 (124.8) 0.06
Lung function
 Vital capacity % 103.3 (19.8) 96.6 (16.5) 0.25
 Total lung capacity % 108.8 (19.9) 111.8 (24.6) 0.65
 Residual volume % 130.9 (37.4) 150.4 (60.2) 0.16
 Inspiratory capacity % 87.0 (23.0) 89.8 (16.1) 0.67
 FRC % 129.3 (30.7) 134.2 (44.5) 0.65
 DLCO % 66.2 (20.3) 64.1 (24.3) 0.76
 KCO % 75.5 [41.2–137.0] 81.5 [35.0–124.0] 0.97
 VA % 82.8 (12.0) 79.2 (9.3) 0.32
 Post FEV1 % 69.7 (11.7) 62.4 (9.0) 0.016
 Reversibility % 5.0 [−3.0–+33.0] 7.4 [0.8–32.0] 0.47
 Reversibility mls 90.0 [−40.0–+670.0] 95.0 [20.0–+380.0] 0.90
Bacteriology
 Bacterial load (genome copies/ml) 1.44 × 105 [0.0–2.43 × 108] 7.4 × 102 [0–10.4 × 107] 0.66
 Colonised (% >1 × 104 total PPM) 66.7 46.2 0.30
Systemic inflammation
 CRP (mg/L) 3.0 [1.0–35.5] 4.5 [1.0–157.0] 0.06
 WBC (109/L) 7.2 [5.4–12.6] 7.4 [5.0–12.6] 0.42
 Eosinophils (109/L) 0.2 [0.0–0.9] 0.2 [0.1–0.3] 0.32
  1. Summaries are presented as mean (SD), percentage or Median [Range] as appropriate
  2. Definitions of abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FFMI fat free mass index, SGRQ St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, CAT COPD Assessment Test, CES-D Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, 6MWD six minute walk distance, FRC functional residual capacity, DLCO diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide, KCO carbon monoxide transfer coefficient, VA alveolar volume, CRP C-reactive protein, WBC white blood count, PPM potentially pathogenic microorganisms