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Table 2 Characteristics of patients using regular metered dose inhalers, and univariate comparison of 10 correct steps vs 3 errors or more, and no critical error vs critical errors

From: Predictors of correct technique in patients using pressurized metered dose inhalers

  All 10–12 steps <10steps P value No critical error critical error P value
All 208 133(63.9%) 75(36.1%)   67(32.2%) 141(67.8%)  
Male gender 97(46.6%) 69(51.9%) 28(37.7%) 0.04 31(46.3%) 66(46.8%) 0.94
Mean age(STD) 57.6(15.4) 57(14.5) 58.6(16.9) 0.45 57.6(12.5) 57.6(16.6) 0.99
Asthma diagnosis 164(78.9%) 110(82.7%) 54(72.0%) 0.08 57(85.1%) 107(75.9%) 0.11
Advised to use spacer 170(81.7%) 109(82%) 61(81.3%) 0.91 56(83.6%) 114(80.9%) 0.626
Observed to use spacer 132(63.5%) 78(58.6%) 54(72%) 0.05 38(56.7%) 94(66.7%) 0.17
Inhaled corticosteroids 180(86.6%) 120(90.2%) 60(80%) 0.05 59(88.1%) 121(85.8%) 0.65
LABA via aerolizer 68(32.7%) 43(32.3%) 25(33.3%) 0.88 19(28.4%) 49(34.8%) 0.35
Inhaled ipratropium bromide 38(18.3%) 21(15.8%) 17(22.7%) 0.24 30(21.3%) 8(11.9%) 0.12
Mean education 1–4 (STD) 2.09(0.98) 2.21(1.03) 1.88(0.85) 0.014 2.24(1.0) 2.02(0.97) 0.14
Married status 136(65.4%) 92(69.2%) 44(58.7%) 0.13 48(71.6%) 88(62.4%) 0.18
Smoker Y/N 24(11.5%) 13(9.8%) 11(14.7%) 0.31 7(10.4%) 17(12.1%) 0.72
Resp physician Follow up 144(69.2%) 92(69.2%) 52(69.3%) 0.98 43(64.2%) 101(71.6%) 0.26
Resp physician explained Y/N 185(88.9%) 118(88.7%) 67(89.3%) 0.89 63(94%) 122(86.5%) 0.06
Resp explained – number of times 1–7 3.37(2.8) 4(2.70) 3.37(2.62) 0.16 3.9(2.64) 3.74(2.71) 0.28
Resp physician time to explain 1–5 1.81(1.37) 1.91(1.46) 1.63(1.18) 0.13 1.85(1.38) 1.78(1.37) 0.76
GP follow up 87(41.8%) 54(40.6%) 33(44%) 0.94 27(40.3%) 60(42.6%) 0.8
GP explained Y/N 104(50%) 69(51.9%) 35(46.7%) 0.47 32(47.8%) 72(51.1% 0.66
GP explained times 0–7 1.43(2.19) 1.40(2.12) 1.48(3.27) 0.8 1.36(2.12) 1.46(2.22) 0.75
GP time to explain(0–5) 0.97(1.25) 1(1.27) 0.92(1.23) 0.66 0.96(1.33) 0.98(1.22) 0.9
Any follow up 187(89.9%) 119(89.5%) 68(90.7%) 0.78 59(88.1%) 128(90.8%) 0.56
Other health care professional explained 60(28.9%) 48(36.1%) 12(16%) 0.001 21(31.3%) 39(27.7%) 0.59
Info-other source 86(41.4%) 56(42.1%) 30(40%) 0.77 31(46.3%) 55(39%) 0.37
Years of inhaler use (decades) 1.88(1.59) 2.02(1.58) 1.62(1.58) 0.08 2.01(1.46) 1.82(1.65) 0.4
Technique self-score 0–10 7.8(2.25) 8.06(2.02) 7.28(2.56) 0.025 7.96(2.21) 7.7(2.28) 0.434
Perception as effective 1–5 2.45(0.8) 2.4(0.735) 2.48(0.84) 0.47 2.4(0.74) 2.48 0.47
Ease of use 1–5 (SD) 3.1(1.0) 3.15(0.97) 2.97(0.99) 0.21 3.12(0.95) 3.07(1.0) 0.74
Concern inhaler side effects 0/1 44(21.2%) 30(22.6%) 14(18.7%) 0.6 19(28.4%) 25(17.7%) 0.09
Diabetes 34(16.35%) 20(15%) 14(18.7%) 0.51 12(17.9%) 22(15.6%) 0.68
Cholesterol 59(28.4%) 33(24.8%) 26(34.7%) 0.14 16(23.9%) 43(30.5%) 0.31
Hypertension 93(44.71%) 56(42.1%) 37(49.3%) 0.32 30(44.8%) 63(44.7%) 0.99
Heart disease 34(16.4%) 14(10.5%) 20(26.7%) 0.005 7(10.4%) 27(19.1%) 0.08
Influenza vaccine (current) 121(58.2%) 44(57.9%) 77(58.7%) 0.91 36(53.7%) 85(60.3%) 0.38
Pneumococcal vaccine 40(19.23%) 30(22.6%) 10(13.3%) 0.08 13(19.4%) 27(19.1%) 0.97
  1. (p <0.1 shown in bold)