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Table 4 Predictors of correct steps of inhaler technique using ordinal logistic regression for all steps 0–12 and critical steps 0–4

From: Predictors of correct technique in patients using pressurized metered dose inhalers

Predictor of correct steps (0–12) Odds ratio Lo95 Up95 p value
Self score 1–10 1.25 1.1 1.42 0.001
Education 1–4 1.6 1.16 2.2 0.004
Observed to use spacer 0.43 0.24 0.8 0.008
GP explained 3.3 1.35 8.09 0.009
Male gender 2.07 1.15 3.71 0.015
Pneumococcal vaccine 2.36 1.14 4.86 0.02
Heart disease 0.43 0.2 0.9 0.026
Inhaled steroid use 2.45 0.98 6.1 0.054
Resp explained number of times 1.11 0.99 1.25 0.068
Any follow up 0.38 0.12 1.22 0.104
High cholesterol 0.58 0.3 1.12 0.104
Times explained by GP 0.88 0.74 1.04 0.126
Other healthcare-explained 1.55 0.86 2.8 0.147
Predictor of correct critical steps Odds Ratio Lo95 Up95 p value
Self score 1–10 1.2 1.05 1.36 0.006
Inhaled steroid use 2.78 1.1 7.02 0.031
Education 1–4 1.41 1.02 1.95 0.036
High cholesterol 0.52 0.26 1.01 0.054
Male gender 1.76 0.97 3.18 0.063
Resp explained number of times 1.1 0.98 1.24 0.101
Observed to use spacer 0.62 0.33 1.15 0.129
Married status 1.55 0.85 2.82 0.15