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Table 1 Sample description (n = 703)

From: Prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in major depression: a observational and retrospective study on 703 subjects

Variables   Categories % Group AHI < 15/h Group AHI ≥ 15/h P-value Chi2
Gender   Male (n = 320) 45.52% 38.68% 87.76% <0.001
Female (n = 383) 54.48% 61.32% 12.24%
Snoring   No (n = 342) 48.65% 53.22% 20.41% <0.001
Yes (n = 361) 51.35% 46.78% 79.59%
Metabolic syndrome   No (n = 636) 90.47% 93.72% 70.41% <0.001
Yes (n = 67) 9.53% 6.28% 29.59%
Benzodiazepines use   No (n = 534) 75.96% 76.03% 75.51% 0.911
Yes (n = 169) 24.04% 23.97% 24.49%
Z-drugs use   No (n = 650) 92.46% 91.57% 97.96% 0.026
Yes (n = 53) 7.54% 8.43% 2.04%
Antidepressant therapy   No (n = 408) 58.04% 58.51% 55.10% 0.526
Yes (n = 295) 41.96% 41.49% 44.90%
Smoking   No (n = 528) 75.11% 74.21% 80.61% 0.174
Yes (n = 175) 24.89% 25.79% 19.39%
Alcohol   No (n = 548) 77.95% 79.50% 68.37% 0.014
Yes (n = 155) 22.05% 20.50% 31.63%
  Mean ± SD      t-test
BMI (kg/m2) 27.32 ± 6.31    26.69 ± 6.14 31.24 ± 5.94 <0.001
<25 (n = 300) 42.67% 47.60% 12.25%
≥25 & <30 (n = 191) 27.17% 26.45% 31.63%
≥30 (n = 212) 30.16% 25.95% 56.12%
Age (years) 44.96 ± 12.29    43.55 ± 11.95 53.66 ± 10.68 <0.001
<50 (n = 463) 65.86% 70.91% 34.69%
≥50 (n = 240) 34.14% 29.09% 65.31%
Sleep duration (hour) 8.26 ± 0.89    8.26 ± 0.88 8.25 ± 0.95 0.917
<8 (n = 394) 56.05% 57.19% 48.98%
≥8 (n = 309) 43.95% 42.81% 51.02%
  Median (P25-P75)      Wilcoxon test
Ferritin (μg/L) 102 (48–209)    89 (42–184) 261.5 (134–406) <0.001
<300 (n = 606) 86.20% 90.74% 58.16%
≥300 (n = 97) 13.80% 9.26% 41.84%
CRP (mg/L) 1.6 (0.9–3.5)    1.5 (0.87–3.4) 1.95 (1–3.7) 0.041
≤7 (n = 643) 91.47% 92.30% 86.73%
>7 (n = 60) 8.53% 7.7% 13.27%
BDI 12 (9–16)    12 (10–16) 11 (9–14) 0.025
<12 (n = 331) 47.08% 45.79% 55.10%
≥12 (n = 372) 52.92% 54.21% 44.90%
ISI 18 (15–21)    19 (16–22) 15 (12–19) <0.001
≥15 (n = 548) 77.95% 81.49% 96.12%
<15 (n = 155) 22.05% 18.51% 3.88%
Epworth 11 (7–14)    10 (6–14) 11.5 (9–15) 0.001
≤10 (n = 346) 49.22% 51.24% 36.73%
>10 (n = 357) 50.78% 48.76% 63.27%
AHI 2 (1–7) <15/h (n = 605) 86.06%    
≥15/h (n = 98) 13.94%
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, ISI Insomnia Severity Index, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, AHI Apnea-Hypopnea Index