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Table 4 Odds Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals) for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Adults Aged 45-74 Years in the Southern Cone of Latin America

From: Estimating prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Southern Cone of Latin America: how different spirometric criteria may affect disease burden and health policies

Risk factors   COPD according FEV1/FVC
Odds ratios and 95% CI
COPD according LLN
Odds ratios and 95% CI
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Sex, men   1.7 (1.4, 2.1) 1.8 (1.4, 2.3) 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) 1.5 (1.1, 2.2)
Age, years 45-54 ref ref ref ref
55-64 2.1 (1.5, 2.9) 2.3 (1.7, 3.3) 1.4 (1.0, 2.0) 1.5 (1.0, 2.2)
65-74 4.6 (3.4, 6.2) 6.1 (4.4, 8.6) 2.1 (1.4, 3.0) 2.7 (1.7, 4.1)
< High-school education   1.4 (1.1, 1.8) 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) 1.7 (1.2, 2.5) 1.8 (1.1, 2.7)
Body-mass index <25 kg/m2   1.7 (1.3, 2.1) 1.4 (1.1, 1.9) 2.2 (1.6, 3.0) 1.9 (1.3, 2.7)
Cigarette smoking Never ref ref ref ref
Former 1.3 (0.9, 1.7) 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 1.4 (1.0, 2.2) 1.2 (0.7, 1.8)
Current 2.8 (2.1, 3.7) 2.8 (2.1, 3.8) 3.1 (2.1, 4.6) 3.1 (2.1, 4.5)
Lifetime exposure in current smokers, pack-years <10 ref ref
10-19 2.1 (1.0, 4.4) 1.0 (0.4, 2.7)
≥20 4.0 (2.1, 7.7) 2.2 (1.1, 4.4)
Second-hand smoking   1.0 (0.6, 1.6) 0.8 (0.4, 1.4)
Exposure to biomass   1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 1.2 (0.8, 1.7) 1.3 (0.8, 2.1) 1.2 (0.7, 2.0)
Self-reported history of asthma   8.8 (6.2, 12.5) 9.8 (6.7, 14.4) 10.8 (7.3, 16.0) 13.0 (8.4, 19.9)
Self-reported history of tuberculosis   3.9 (1.8, 8.3) 3.3 (1.4, 7.8) 6.4 (2.9, 14.2) 5.6 (2.2, 14.3)
  1. Model 1: model for each risk factor adjusted for age, sex, and study site; Model 2: model adjusted for age, sex, study site, high school education, body-mass index, cigarette smoking, exposure to biomass, self-reported history of asthma, and self-reported history of tuberculosis