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Table 3 Real-time echocardiographic changes in hemodynamics before and after pleural drainage

From: Improved heart hemodynamics after draining large-volume pleural effusion: a prospective cohort study

Parameters Effusion (n = 28)
Before Immediately After P a 24 h After P b P c
Left Heart
 LVdVI, (ml/m2) 31.9 (24.3–42.8) 35.3 (31.3–44.9) < 0.001 36.7 (31.1–48.2) < 0.001 0.019
 LVsVI, (ml/m2) 11.3 (9.4–16.7) 12.2 (10.2–16.3) 0.220 12.2 (10.3–15.2) < 0.001 0.264
 LAVI, (ml/m2) 22.8 (17.2–26.0) 26.5 (19.1–29.7) 0.018 27.4 (22.9–32.0) < 0.001 0.234
Right Heart
 RV area, (cm2) 14.1 (12.5–18.9) 17.3 (15.2–18.9) 0.036 17.3 (15.0–18.5) 0.011 0.782
 RA area, (cm2) 11.8 (9.9–14.9) 14.1 (11.3–16.3) 0.016 14.2 (11.3–15.6) 0.018 0.727
Left ventricle
 LVEF, (%) 62.0 (59.3–66.8) 65.0 (63.0–68.8) 0.030 68.5 (64.0–71.0) 0.008 0.071
 SV, (ml) 36.0 (27.3–47.5) 41.0 (35.5–49.8) < 0.001 42.5 (38.0–52.6) < 0.001 0.006
 Sm, (cm/s) 8.2 (7.5–9.7) 8.0 (7.5–9.3) 0.952 9.0 (8.0–9.6) 0.137 0.055
 GLS, (%) 19.0 (18.0–20.0) 19.5 (18.0–21.0) 0.086 21.0 (18.0–22.9) < 0.001 0.029
Right ventricle
 FAC, (%) 45.5 (38.3–52.0) 48.0 (45.0–57.0) 0.065 50.0 (40.0–55.0) 0.347 < 0.001
 TAPSE, (cm) 18.0 (17.0–19.8) 20.1 (19.0–22.0) < 0.001 22.4 (19.5–24.8) 0.001 < 0.001
 RVFWs, (%) 18.0 (17.6–19.3) 19.1 (18.3–21.5) 0.137 19.3 (18.3–21.1) 0.018 0.603
Left ventricle
 IVRT, (s) 106.0 (106.0–127.0) 113.0 (106.0–123.0) 0.601 118.0 (106.0–135.3) 0.310 0.649
 E, (cm/s) 74.5 (67.8–85.0) 70.7 (64.3–76.8) 0.285 64.8 (56.8–82.4) 0.178 0.683
 A, (cm/s) 85.5 (63.8–113.8) 91.9 (58.7–103.3) 0.493 80.8 (48.9–93.4) 0.019 0.058
 E/A 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.8 (0.7–1.3) 0.546 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 0.260 0.157
 Em, (cm/s) 7.0 (6.1–9.8) 7.4 (6.3–8.7) 0.819 8.4 (6.2–9.3) 0.170 0.170
 Am, (cm/s) 10.4 (8.9–11.7) 10.9 (10.0–12.1) 0.390 11.0 (10.4–12.6) 0.334 0.309
 E/Em 10.9 (7.1–13.6) 9.8 (7.3–11.0) 0.419 9.1 (6.4–10.6) 0.023 0.095
Right ventricle
 MPI 0.7 (0.6–0.7) 0.5 (0.5–0.7) < 0.001 0.5 (0.4–0.6) 0.002 0.585
 TvE, (cm/s) 54.0 (45.0–65.3) 57.0 (50.3–65.9) 0.536 53.0 (46.2–64.8) 0.543 0.065
 TvA, (cm/s) 51.5 (40.8–60.3) 48.7 (40.8–60.3) 1.000 41.8 (35.9–51.5) 0.069 0.027
 TvE/A 1.1 (0.8–1.3) 1.2 (0.8–1.4) 0.619 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 0.122 0.265
 TvE/Et 4.2 (3.6–5.8) 4.5 (3.1–4.9) 0.339 3.5 (2.8–5.4) 0.264 0.406
  1. Abbreviations: LVdVI Left ventricular end diastolic volume index, LVsVI left ventricular end-systolic volume index, LAVI left atrial volume index, RV area, right ventricular area, RA area, right atrial area, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, SV stroke volume, Sm systolic mitral annular velocity, GLS global left ventricular strain, FAC fractional area change, TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RVFWs right ventricular free-wall strain, E early-transmitralflow velocity, A late-transmitral flow velocity, E/A, ratio of early- to late-transmitral flow velocity, Em, early-diastolic mitral annular velocity, Am late-diastolic mitral annular velocity, E/Em ratio of early-transmitral flow velocity to diastolic mitral annular velocity, MPI, myocardial performance index, TvE early-transtricuspid flow velocity, TvA late-transtricuspid flow velocity;TvE/A, ratio of early- to late-transtricuspid flow velocity, TvE/Et, ratio of early-transtricuspid flow velocity to diastolic tricuspid annular velocity
  2. *Pa < 0.05 compared with the corresponding parameters before and immediately after drainage; Pb < 0.05 compared with the corresponding parameters before and 24 h after drainage;Pc < 0.05 compared with the corresponding value immediately after drainage and the value 24 h after drainage