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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses for development of interstitial lung disease during the 9-year follow-up period

From: Risk factors for interstitial lung disease: a 9-year Nationwide population-based study

Risk factor Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Men (reference: women) 1.9 (1.7–2.1) < 0.001 1.9 (1.7–2.1) < 0.001
Age group (years) (reference: 40–49)
 50–59 1.9 (1.7–2.2) < 0.001 1.9 (1.7–2.2) < 0.001
 60–69 4.3 (3.8–4.9) < 0.001 4.1 (3.6–4.7) < 0.001
  ≥70 7.1 (6.2–8.2) < 0.001 6.9 (5.9–8.0) < 0.001
Diabetes (reference: no) 1.6 (1.5–1.8) < 0.001 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.06
COPD (reference: no) 3.7 (3.2–4.2) < 0.001 1.8 (1.6–2.1) < 0.001
GERD (reference: no) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) < 0.001 1.0 (0.9–1.3) 0.31
History of herpes (reference: no) 0.97 (0.7–1.2) 0.85 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.92
History of tuberculosis (reference: no) 3.0 (2.4–3.7) < 0.001 1.5 (1.1–1.9) 0.003
History of pneumonia (reference: no) 2.2 (1.8–2.7) < 0.001 1.6 (1.3–2.0) < 0.001
Hepatitis C (reference: no) 2.1 (1.4–3.0) < 0.001 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 0.01
Hepatitis B (reference: no) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.84 0.8 (0.7–1.1) 0.39
Smoker (reference: never smoker) 1.4 (1.3–1.6) < 0.001 1.2 (1.1–1.4) < 0.001
Household income, % (reference: 81–100)
 41–80 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 0.04 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.35
 11–40 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.85 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.87
 0–10 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 0.39 1.1 (0.7–1.5) 0.59
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GERD gastroesophageal reflux disorder