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Table 1 Study population characteristics, 5907 parents and 6752 offspring included in the RHINESSA generation study

From: Agreement in reporting of asthma by parents or offspring – the RHINESSA generation study

Characteristics Parents (RHINE/ECRHS) Children (RHINESSA)
Mother Father Pa Daughter Son Pa
N (%) N (%)   N (%) N (%)  
N (%) 3377 (57) 2530 (43)   3910 (58) 2842 (42)  
 Albacete 39 (57) 30 (43) 39 (53) 34 (47)
 Bergen 593 (53) 518 (47) 706 (60) 480 (40)
 Gothenburg 413 (56) 322 (44) 491 (53) 439 (47)
 Huelva 42 (69) 19 (31) 44 (64) 25 (36)
 Melbourne 96 (55) 80 (45) 42 (62) 26 (38)
 Reykjavik 409 (55) 328 (45) 543 (61) 342 (39)
 Tartu 205 (68) 97 (32) 177 (60) 119 (40)
 Umea 629 (60) 423 (40) 735 (57) 545 (43)
 Uppsala 602 (59) 420 (41) 713 (56) 556 (44)
 Aarhus 349 (54) 293 (46) 420 (60) 276 (40)
Mean age (SD) 54.0 (6.5) 54.7 (6.1) < 0.001 30.3 (7.7) 30.4 (7.8) 0.930
Asthma (%) 478 (14) 292 (12) 0.004 671 (17) 420 (15) 0.008
Smoking 0.009   < 0.001
 Never-smokers 1496 (46) 1155 (47) 2602 (67) 1942 (69)
 Ex-smokers 1400 (43) 1100 (45) 850 (22) 503 (18)
 Current smokers 337 (10) 197 (8) 445 (11) 382 (14)
Education < 0.001   < 0.001
 Primary school 385 (12) 296 (12) 97 (3) 91 (3)
 Secondary school 1224 (38) 1029 (44) 1282 (33) 1259 (44)
 College/university 1576 (50) 1068 (45) 2521 (65) 1487 (52)
Parental asthma 0.058   < 0.001
 Mother 295 (10) 206 (9) 476 (12) 272 (10)
 Father 218 (7) 124 (6) 309 (8) 179 (6)
 No one 2518 (83) 1922 (85) 3038 (79) 2333 (83)
 Both 12 (0.4) 12 (0.5) 39 (2) 23 (1)
Other diseasesb
 Comorbidity 892 (26) 778 (31) < 0.001 165 (4) 124 (4) 0.770
 Hypertension 778 (23) 659 (26) 0.005 120 (3) 96 (4) 0.390
 Stroke 54 (2) 46 (2) 0.510
 Ischemic heart disease 64 (2) 116 (5) < 0.001 5 (0.1) 8 (0.3) 0.150
 Diabetes mellitus 106 (3) 107 (5) 0.027 53 (1) 30 (1) 0.270
 COPD 73 (2) 60 (2) 0.600 10 (0.3) 5 (0.2) 0.490
 Serious childhood infection < 5 years 254 (8) 126 (5) < 0.001 331 (9) 185 (7) < 0.001
Respiratory symptoms 0.246   0.001
 Wheezec 669 (20) 530 (21) 0.330 697 (18) 468 (17) 0.150
 Wheeze with shortness of breathc 421 (13) 297 (12) 0.380 457 (62) 256 (49) < 0.001
 Awoken with tightness in chestc 364 (11) 245 (10) 0.170 497 (13) 286 (10) < 0.001
 Awoken with attack of breathlessnessc 220 (7) 126 (5) 0.013 173 (4) 136 (5) 0.48
 Awoken with attack of coughc 1093 (33) 533 (21) < 0.001 1343 (34 562 (20) < 0.001
 Currently taking asthma medication 327 (10) 216 (9) 0.130 383 (10) 212 (8) < 0.001
  1. aAll p-values < 0.05 = significant and are marked bold. P-values are estimated from two-group mean comparison test (unpaired t-test) for continuous values and chi-squared test for categorical values
  2. bComorbidity includes the variables: hypertension, stroke, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, COPD, serious childhood infection < 5 years. Questions about stroke and COPD were not included in the offspring-questionnaires
  3. cIn the past 12 months