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Table 3 Parameters independently associated with severe exacerbations/ hospitalizations; n = 357

From: Adherence to inhaled therapy and its impact on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

  OR (95% CI) crude OR (95% CI) adjusted
Gender
 Female Reference Reference
 Male 0.89 (0.58; 1.38) 0.95 (0.57; 1.57)
Age (years)
  <  50 Reference Reference
 50–60 1.68 (0.56; 5.06) 0.87 (0.26; 2.90)
 60–70 2.12 (0.74; 6.07) 1.00 (0.32; 3.13)
  > 70 1.12 (0.39; 3.21) 0.71 (0.22; 2.24)
FEV1
  > 80% pred. Reference Reference
 50–80% pred. 0.86 (0.39; 1.88) 0.94 (0.40; 2.24)
 30–50% pred. 2.09 (0.92; 4.75) 2.50 (1.02; 6.13)
  < 30% pred. 10.69 (2.99;38.24) 13.62 (3.11; 59.63)
Smoking status
 Current smoker Reference Reference
 Former smoker 1.11 (0.71; 1.73) 1.19 (0.70; 2.02)
 Never smoker 0.67 (0.21; 2.12) 0.82 (0.23; 2.92)
Adherence to therapy
 Complete (≥ 80%) Reference Reference
 Partial (50–80%) 0.77 (0.44; 1.35) 0.95 (0.50; 1.78)
 Low (<  50%) 0.44 (0.27; 0.71) 0.58 (0.33; 1.02)