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Table 1 Socio-demographic, anthropometric, household, lifestyle and occupational factors among adults ≥18 years, Karachi, Pakistan (n = 1629)

From: Epidemiology of asthma and associated factors in an urban Pakistani population: adult asthma study-Karachi

Characteristics n (%)
Age
 18 to 27 years 531 (32.6)
 28 to 37 years 399 (24.5)
  ≥ 38 years 699 (42.9)
Gender
 Male 658 (40.4)
 Female 971 (59.6)
Birth Order
 1st 394 (24.2)
 2nd 310 (19.0)
 3rd 295 (18.1)
  ≥ 4th 630 (38.7)
Total number of children in household
 1 to 3 232 (14.3)
 4 to 5 442 (27.1)
  ≥ 6 955 (58.6)
Ethnicity
 Urdu 715 (43.9)
 Punjabi 469 (28.8)
 Sindhi 295 (18.1)
 Pushto 90 (5.5)
 Baluchi 60 (3.7)
Educational levela (n = 1626)
 Literate 1109 (68.2)
 Illiterate 517 (31.8)
Socio-economic statusb (n = 1621)
 High-income 537 (33.0)
 Middle-income 544 (33.4)
 Low-income 540 (33.1)
Number of rooms in house
 1 room 293 (18.0)
  ≥ 2 rooms 1336 (82.0)
House ownership status
 Own 1223 (75.1)
 Rented 407 (24.9)
Type of household
Pakka 1579 (97.0)
Kacha-Pakka 50 (3.0)
Type of clusterc
 Planned 855 (52.5)
 Unplanned 774 (47.5)
Wet spots inside house 844 (51.8)
Mold Inside house 81 (5.0)
Animal or birds inside housed 474 (29.0)
Carpeting inside house 528 (32.4)
Incense burning in house 767 (47.1)
Mosquito coil burning in house 739 (45.4)
Painted home in last 6 months 204 (12.5)
Cook food 894 (54.9)
Frequency of cooking food
 No cooking at all 735 (45.1)
 Occasionally 143 (8.8)
 Daily 751 (46.1)
Presence of window in kitchen 491 (30.1)
Presence of exhaust fan in kitchen 227 (13.9)
Type of kitchen
 Outdoor 632 (38.7)
 Indoor separate 268 (16.5)
 Indoor non-separate 729 (44.8)
Smoking statuse
 Never 1409 (86.5)
 Ever 220 (13.5)
Pack years of smokingf
 Non smoker 1409 (86.5)
  ≤ 10 132 (8.1)
 10–20 31 (1.9)
  > 20 57 (3.5)
Exposure to environmental tobacco smokeg 452 (28.1)
Body Mass Indexh (n = 1611)
 Underweight 673 (41.8)
 Normal weight 575 (35.7)
 Overweight and obese 363 (22.5)
History of any allergy 451 (27.7)
Family history of asthma 192 (11.8)
Family History of tuberculosis 44 (2.7)
Exposure to any dusty job
 Never worked 899 (55.2)
 Working and no dust exposure 293 (18.0)
 Working and dust exposure 437 (26.8)
Exposure to gas or fumes at work
 Never worked 899 (55.2)
 Working and no gas exposure 592 (36.3)
 Working and gas exposure 138 (8.5)
Current employment statusi
 Unemployed 1000 (61.4)
 Employed 629 (38.6)
ISCO Categoriesj
 Not working 1000 (61.4)
 White collar worker 301 (18.5)
 Blue collar worker 328 (20.1)
  1. aEducational level: those who never attended school or did not know how to read or write were considered as illiterate while those who had been to school were categorized as literate
  2. bSocio-economic status was defined using the proxy indicator of monthly household income which included income of all members living in the same house as well as additional earnings based on any business or other investment
  3. cType of cluster was defined as planned areas included those with permanent housing structure, sufficient living place, access to safe water and adequate sanitation system, while unplanned areas were densely populated areas of substandard housing, characterized by poverty, unsanitary and inferior living conditions and social disorganization
  4. dAnimal or birds inside house included both pets as well as animals kept as livestock
  5. eEver smoker was defined as smoking more than 20 packs of cigarettes in a lifetime or more than one cigarette a day for one year
  6. fPack years of smoking was defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per day divided by 20 and multiplied by the number of years that the person smoked
  7. gExposure to environmental tobacco smoke was defined as anyone who smoked cigarettes anywhere inside the house
  8. hBody mass index was defined according to WHO criteria for Asian population and categorized as: underweighted, < 18.5 kg/m2; normal, 18.5–23 kg/m2; overweight and obese, ≥ 23 kg/m2
  9. iCurrent employment status was defined as employed somewhere currently or self-employed, whereas, unemployed included students, housewives, those currently not working anywhere or retired
  10. jThe International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) categories were three i.e. not working, high and low skilled blue collar workers (involved in manual work), high and low skilled white collar workers (involved in desk work)