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Table 3 Univariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with asthma among adults ≥18 years, Karachi, Pakistan (n = 930)

From: Epidemiology of asthma and associated factors in an urban Pakistani population: adult asthma study-Karachi

Characteristics Reversibility in FEV1k Respiratory symptoms and reversibility in FEV1k
  OR (95% CI) P- Value OR (95% CI) p-value
Age
 18 to 27 years 1 0.02 1 0.01
 28 to 37 years 0.9 (0.5–1.8) 0.51 0.7 (0.3–1.8) 0.47
  ≥ 38 years 1.9 (1.1–3.2) 0.03 2.2 (1.1–4.2) 0.02
Gender
 Male 1   1  
 Female 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 0.40 1.1 (0.7–1.9) 0.64
Birth Order
 1st 0.8 (0.5–1.5) 0.51 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 0.48
 2nd 0.9 (0.6–1.7) 0.61 0.8 (0.4–1.8) 0.67
 3rd 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 0.31 1.4 (0.7–2.7) 0.37
  ≥ 4th 1   1  
Total number of Children
 1 to 3 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.22 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 0.21
 4 to 5 0.9 (0.5–1.4) 0.81 0.5 (0.2–1.4) 0.82
  ≥ 6 1   1 0.44
Educationa
 Literate 1   1  
 Illiterate 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 0.05 1.9 (1.1–3.2) 0.02
Socio-economic statusb     
 High income 1 0.21 1 0.13
 Middle income 1.6 (0.9–2.6) 0.10 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 0.22
 Low income 1.8(1.1–3.1) 0.03 1.2 (0.6–2.2) 0.24
Number of rooms
  ≥ 2 rooms 1   1  
 1 room 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.75 1.1 (0.6–2.2) 0.71
Ownership status
 Own 1   1  
 Rented 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 0.31 1.3 (0.7–2.2) 0.44
Type of clusterc
 Planned 1   1  
 Unplanned 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 0.29 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.73
Wet spots inside house
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 0.28 0.9 (0.6–1.7) 0.99
Animal or birds inside housed
 No 1   1  
 Yes 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.19 0.6 (0.3–1.1) 0.10
Carpeting inside house
 No 1   1  
 Yes 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 0.81 0.9 (0.6–1.7) 0.88
Incense burning in home
 Never 1   1  
 Ever 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 0.96 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.97
Mosquito coil
 Never 1   1  
 Ever 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.85 0.9 (0.6–1.6) 0.91
Cooking food
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 0.41 0.5 (0.3–1.1) 0.47
Window in Kitchen
 Yes 1   1  
 No 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.08 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 0.05
Exhaust in kitchen
 Yes 1   1  
 No 0.8 (0.5–1.5) 0.51 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.04
Type of kitchen
 Outdoor 1   1 0.401
 Indoor separate 1.5 (0.8–2.6) 0.15 1.6 (0.8–3.4) 0.17
 Indoor non separate 1.2 (0.7–1.9) 0.21 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 0.41
Smoking statuse
 Never 1   1  
 Ever 1.6 (1.1–2.6) 0.03 1.7 (0.9–3.1) 0.07
Pack years of smokingf
 Non smoker 1 0.00 1 0.001
  < 5 years 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 0.39 0.6 (0.2–2.1) 0.47
  ≥ 5 years 2.2 (1.2–4.1) 0.001 3.2 (1.7–6.3) 0.001
Exposure to environmental tobacco smokeg
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.5 (0.9–2.3) 0.05 1.8 (1.1–3.1) 0.03
Body Mass Indexh
 Underweight 1 0.490 1 0.410
 Normal 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 0.100 1.4 (0.8–2.6) 0.287
 Overweight and obese 1.3 (0.8–2.3) 0.101 1.6 (0.8–3.1) 0.208
History of any allergy
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 0.02 2.7 (1.6–4.5) 0.001
Family history of asthma
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 0.41 2.0 (1.1–3.9) 0.00
Exposure of dusty job
 Not working 1 0.81 1 0.82
 Working and no dust exposure 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.42 0.4 (0.1–0.9) 0.04
 Working and dust exposure 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 0.39 1.2 (0.7–2.2) 0.42
Exposure of gas or fumes at work
 Not working 1 0.10 1 0.91
 Working and no gas exposure 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.41 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.68
 Working and gas exposure 1.5 (0.8–2.8) 0.35 0.9 (0.4–2.3) 0.97
Current employment statusi
 Unemployed 1   1  
 Employed 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.51 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.701
ISCO Categories j
 Not working 1 0.78 1 0.88
 White collar worker 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.59 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 0.62
 Blue collar worker 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 0.34 0.95 (0.5–1.8) 0.87
  1. aEducational level: those who never attended school or did not know how to read or write were considered as illiterate while those who had been to school were categorized as literate
  2. bSocio-economic status was defined using the proxy indicator of monthly household income which included income of all members living in the same house as well as additional earnings based on any business or other investment
  3. cType of cluster was defined as planned areas included those with permanent housing structure, sufficient living place, access to safe water and adequate sanitation system, while unplanned areas were densely populated areas of substandard housing, characterized by poverty, unsanitary and inferior living conditions and social disorganization
  4. dAnimal or birds inside house included both pets as well as animals kept as livestock
  5. eEver smoker was defined as smoking more than 20 packs of cigarettes in a lifetime or more than one cigarette a day for one year
  6. fPack years of smoking was defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per day divided by 20 and multiplied by the number of years that the person smoked
  7. gExposure to environmental tobacco smoke was defined as anyone who smoked cigarettes anywhere inside the house
  8. hBody mass index was defined according to WHO criteria for Asian population and categorized as: underweighted, < 18.5 kg/m2; normal, 18.5–23 kg/m2; overweight and obese, ≥ 23 kg/m2
  9. iCurrent employment status was defined as employed somewhere currently or self-employed, whereas, unemployed included students, housewives, those currently not working anywhere or retired
  10. jThe International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) categories were three i.e. not working, high and low skilled blue collar workers (involved in manual work), high and low skilled white collar workers (involved in desk work)
  11. kDefinitions used for asthma:
  12. Spirometry-based asthma assessed on presence of post-bronchodilator reversibility ≥200 ml in FEV1
  13. Asthma based on post-bronchodilator reversibility ≥200 ml in FEV1 and one or more respiratory symptoms, or self-reported asthma