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Table 2 Distribution of clinical characteristics, management and concentration of inflammatory biomarkers in children with definite bacterial pneumonia, presumed viral pneumonia and other pneumonia

From: Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children

Parameter Definite bacterial pneumonia (N = 30),
A
Presumed viral pneumonia, (N = 118)
B
Other pneumonia, (N = 82)
C
Clinical features
Fever (body temperature ≥ 38.0 °C) 27 (90) λ** μ*** 71 (60) 41 (50)
Age-specific Tachypnoea 9 (30) 56 (47) δ** 22 (27)
SpO2% at presentation, median (IQR) 96 (94, 98) 95 (93, 98) 95 (94, 97)
Diagnosis of wheeze at presentation 0 (0) 18 (15) 11 (13)
Diagnosis of crackles/crepitation at presentation 8 (27) 58 (49) 42 (52)
Cough 24 (80) 109 (92) 75 (91)
Rhinorrhea 12 (40) 93 (79) δ*** λ *** 41 (50)
Difficulty in breathing 25 (83) 88 (75) 62 (76)
Vomiting 19 (63) 78 (66) 39 (48)
Body rash 3 (10) 14 (12) 12 (15)
Diarrhea 8 (27) 34 (29) 15 (18)
Poor oral intake 22 (73) 82 (69) 61 (74)
Clinical management
Supplemental O2 16 (53) 65 (55) 35 (43)
Intravenous fluid 22 (73) μ*** λ* 60 (51) δ** 25 (31)
Respiratory support 1 (3) 2 (2) 3 (4)
Supplemental O2 + intravenous fluid 16 (53) μ** λ* 38 (32) 19 (23)
Hospitalization day, median (IQR) 8 (4, 11) μ*** λ*** 2 (1, 3) 2 (1, 3)
Blood inflammatory markers
WCC count (×109/L), median (IQR) 16 (11, 21) λ* 11 (8, 18) 12 (8, 18)
CRP (mg/L), median (IQR) 174 (64, 246) λ*** μ*** 24 (13, 56) 27 (17, 59)
Absolute neutrophil, (×109/L), median (IQR) 13 (8, 19) λ** μ** 7 (4, 13) 8 (4, 13)
  1. Data are frequency (percentage), unless otherwise mentioned
  2. For comparison, Chi-square test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon-ranksum test for continuous variable was done; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  3. λ Comparison between A and B
  4. μ Comparison between A and C
  5. δ Comparison between B and C