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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for overall survival using a proportional hazard model

From: The impact of emphysema on surgical outcomes of early-stage lung cancer: a retrospective study

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variablea   HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
Sex Male 3.383 1.648–6.945 0.001    
Female 1      
Age   1.050 1.013–1.088 0.007    
BMI   0.904 0.819–0.997 0.044    
Smoking Index   1.001 1.000–1.001 < 0.001 1.000 1.000–1.001 0.013
VC (%)   0.98 0.963–0.997 0.021    
FEV1/FVC (%)   0.957 0.932–0.982 0.001    
COPD No 1      
Yes 2.332 1.348–4.034 0.002    
Surgical procedure Sublobar resection 1      
Lobectomy 1.042 0.599–1.814 0.884    
Tumor size   1.251 0.981–1.596 0.071    
Histology Adenocarcinoma 1      
Squamous cell carcinoma 2.529 1.347–4.746 0.004    
Other 3.159 1.228–8.125 0.017    
Histologic grade Well differentiated 1    1   
Moderately differentiated 3.002 1.530–5.888 0.001 2.205 1.115–4.360 0.023
Poorly differentiated 4.805 2.309–9.998 < 0.001 2.990 1.388–6.442 0.005
Pleural invasion Absent 1      
Present 2.107 1.219–3.641 0.008    
Emphysema Absent 1    1   
Present 3.263 1.865–5.709 < 0.001 1.927 1.050–3.537 0.034
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, VC vital capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC forced vital capacity
  2. aCategorical data are expressed as numbers, and continuous data are expressed as means ± standard deviation