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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for recurrence-free survival using a proportional hazard model

From: The impact of emphysema on surgical outcomes of early-stage lung cancer: a retrospective study

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variablea   HR 95% CI P HR 95% CI P
Sex Male 2.171 1.293–3.647 0.002    
Female 1      
Age   1.028 0.998–1.058 0.065    
BMI   0.944 0.871–1. 0.155    
Smoking Index   1.001 1.000–1.001 < 0.001 1.000 1.000–1.001 0.006
VC (%)   0.984 0.970–0.998 0.029 0.985 0.971–0.999 0.032
FEV1/FVC (%)   0.965 0.945–0.986 0.001    
COPD No 1      
Yes 1.806 1.134–2.874 0.013    
Surgical procedure Sublobar resection 1      
Lobectomy 0.940 0.598–1.476 0.787    
Tumor size   1.288 1.054–1.575 0.013    
Histology Adenocarcinoma 1      
Squamous cell carcinoma 2.034 1.199–3.450 0.008    
Other 3.146 1.426–6.942 0.005    
Histologic grade Well differentiated 1    1   
Moderately differentiated 2.800 1.647–4.760 < 0.001 1.934 1.111–3.367 0.020
Poorly differentiated 3.605 1.933–6.722 < 0.001 2.026 1.048–3.915 0.036
Pleural invasion Absent 1    1   
Present 2.713 1.734–4.246 < 0.001 1.845 1.154–2.951 0.011
Emphysema Absent 1    1   
Present 2.807 1.749–4.504 < 0.001 2.122 1.173–3.839 0.013
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, VC vital capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC forced vital capacity
  2. aCategorical data are expressed as numbers, and continuous data are expressed as means ± standard deviation