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Table 2 Relationship between Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids and Respiratory Symptoms in U.S. Adults with COPD

From: Omega-3 fatty acid intake and prevalent respiratory symptoms among U.S. adults with COPD

  Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) Linoleic Acid (LA) Interaction (ALA*LA)
OR (95% CI) p-val OR (95% CI) p-val OR (95% CI) pint
Chronic Cough 0.60 (0.36-0.99) 0.045 1.005 (0.97-1.04) 0.781 1.02 (1.00-1.04) 0.015
Nocturnal Cough 0.84 (0.42-1.69) 0.628 1.040 (0.96-1.13) 0.353 1.02 (1.00-1.03) 0.053
Phlegm 0.83 (0.51-1.35) 0.437 1.000 (0.95-1.05) 1.000 1.01 (0.99-1.03) 0.096
Wheeze (any) 0.63 (0.41-0.98) 0.039 1.014 (0.97-1.06) 0.510 1.02 (1.00-1.03) 0.037
Nocturnal Wheeze 0.78 (0.42-1.44) 0.420 1.003 (0.95-1.06) 0.921 1.02 (1.00-1.03) 0.032
Wheeze with Exertion 0.81 (0.38-1.69) 0.563 1.003 (0.95-1.06) 0.916 1.02 (0.99-1.04) 0.106
Meds for Wheeze 0.46 (0.22-0.94) 0.034 1.089 (1.02-1.16) 0.008 0.99 (0.96-1.03) 0.729
  1. Adjusted for age, gender, race, education, smoking status, FEV1, total calories, BMI, pack per years ALA and LA levels are centered at mean levels for the NHANES population (age 40–79)