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Table 2 Hazard ratios for asthma during a 10-year follow-up (2004–2013) according to age, economic status, health behaviours and BMI by sex

From: Sex differences in the association between asthma incidence and modifiable risk factors in Korean middle-aged and older adults: NHIS-HEALS 10-year cohort

  Men Women
Case Univariable Model MultivariableModel Case Univariable Model MultivariableModel
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Age
 40–49 8924 10,602
 50–59 7451 1.55 (1.51–1.60) 1.53 (1.48–1.58) 8547 1.28 (1.24–1.32) 1.24 (1.21–1.28)
 60–69 6466 2.47 (2.39–2.55) 2.38 (2.30–2.46) 7119 1.53 (1.49–1.58) 1.48 (1.44–1.53)
  ≥ 70 2118 3.70 (3.53–3.88) 3.46 (3.30–3.64) 2144 1.61 (1.54–1.69) 1.58 (1.51–1.66)
Insurance type
 Self-employed insured 8927 13,309
 Employed insured 16,000 0.78 (0.76–0.80) 0.92 (0.89–0.94) 15,045 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 1.00 (0.97–1.02)
 Medical aid beneficiary 32 2.20 (1.56–3.12) 1.69 (1.20–2.40) 58 1.51 (1.17–1.95) 1.38 (1.06–1.78)
Household income
 Low 6913 10,520
 Medium 9193 0.82 (0.80–0.85) 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 9756 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.99 (0.96–1.01)
 High 8853 0.80 (0.77–0.82) 0.97 (0.94–1.00) 8136 0.98 (0.95–1.01) 1.00 (0.98–1.03)
BMI
 Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 763 1.57 (1.46–1.69) 1.32 (1.23–1.43) 554 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 0.94 (0.87–1.03)
 Normal (18.5–< 23 kg/m2) 8494 9571  
 Overweight (23–< 25 kg/m2) 6910 0.94 (0.91–0.97) 1.00 (0.96–1.03) 7390 1.14 (1.11–1.17) 1.11 (1.07–1.14)
 Obesity (25–< 30 kg/m2) 8223 0.95 (0.93–0.98) 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 9657 1.31 (1.27–1.34) 1.24 (1.21–1.28)
 Severe obesity (≥30 kg/m2) 569 1.08 (1.00–1.18) 1.23 (1.13–1.34) 1240 1.50 (1.42–1.58) 1.40 (1.32–1.48)
Smoking status
 Unknown 1158 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 1.05 (0.98–1.13) 1093 1.03 (0.97–1.09) 1.00 (0.92–1.10)
 Never smoker 10,474 26,081
 Past smoker 3803 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 1.11 (1.07–1.15) 269 1.09 (0.97–1.23) 1.10 (0.98–1.24)
 Current smoker 9524 0.89 (0.87–0.92) 1.07 (1.04–1.10) 969 1.43 (1.34–1.53) 1.42 (1.33–1.51)
Drinking status
 Unknown 369 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 0.85 (0.76–0.96) 728 1.05 (0.97–1.13) 1.00 (0.90–1.12)
 None 9749 22,950
  < Twice a week 10,040 0.74 (0.71–0.76) 0.87 (0.84–0.89) 4180 0.93 (0.90–0.97) 0.99 (0.95–1.02)
  ≥ Three times a week 4801 0.85 (0.82–0.88) 0.86 (0.83–0.90) 554 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 1.05 (0.96–1.14)
Physical activity
 Unknown 798 0.97 (0.90–1.04) 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 866 1.04 (0.97–1.11) 1.04 (0.96–1.13)
 None 12,572 18,364
  < Twice a week 6518 0.82 (0.80–0.85) 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 4503 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 1.02 (0.99–1.06)
  ≥ Three times a week 5071 0.94 (0.91–0.97) 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 4679 1.03 (1.00–1.07) 1.05 (1.02–1.08)
  1. BMI = Body Mass Index; HR = hazard ratios; CI = confidence intervals