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Table 1 Histological findings in H&E-stained tissue specimens of CD-1 mice intratracheally treated with different doses of SPA4 peptide (n = 11–15 mice per group)

From: Lung and general health effects of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-interacting SPA4 peptide

GroupHistological findings
0.625 μg SPA4 peptide/g body weight (n = 12)Normal-appearing lung (n = 11/12), spleen (n = 12/12), intestine (n = 12/12), kidney (n = 12/12), heart (n = 12/12), and liver (n = 12/12).
Lung tissue from one mouse revealed moderate congestion and edema with a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate involving both the terminal and conducting airways, consistent with a moderate diffuse subacute bronchopneumonia.
1.25 μg SPA4 peptide/g body weight (n = 13)Normal-appearing lung (n = 13/13), spleen (n = 13/13), intestine (n = 13/13), kidney (n = 13/13), heart (n = 13/13), and liver (n = 12/13).
Liver from one mouse revealed a mild to moderate infiltrate of mostly lymphocytes within the periportal zones consistent with moderate chronic multifocal hepato-cholangitis.
2.5 μg SPA4 peptide/g body weight (n = 13)Normal-appearing lung (n = 13/13), spleen (n = 13/13), intestine (n = 13/13), kidney (n = 13/13), heart (n = 13/13), and liver (n = 12/13).
Liver from one mouse revealed increased mitotic activity.
5 μg SPA4 peptide/g body weight (n = 11)Normal-appearing lung (n = 11/11), spleen (n = 11/11), intestine (n = 11/11), kidney (n = 11/11), heart (n = 11/11), and liver (n = 10/11).
Liver tissue from one mouse revealed mild to moderate infiltration of mostly lymphocytes within the periportal zones consistent with moderate chronic multifocal hepato-cholangitis.
10 μg SPA4 peptide/g body weight (n = 12)Normal-appearing lung (n = 12/12), spleen (n = 12/12), intestine (n = 12/12), kidney (n = 12/12), heart (n = 12/12), and liver (n = 12/12).
Vehicle control (n = 11)Normal-appearing lung (n = 11/11), spleen (n = 11/11), intestine (n = 11/11), kidney (n = 10/11), heart (n = 11/11), and liver (n = 11/11).
The kidney in one mouse revealed a small subcapsular foci of tubular loss with several small foci of chronic interstitial inflammation.
Untreated control (n = 15)Normal-appearing lung (n = 15/15), spleen (n = 15/15), intestine (n = 15/15), kidney (n = 15/15), heart (n = 15/15), and liver (n = 15/15).