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Table 3 Multivariable regression analysis. Association between empirical antibiotic prescribing, various covariates and length of hospital stay (LOS) (n = 626) and 30-day readmission (n = 609), respectively

From: Empirical prescribing of penicillin G/V reduces risk of readmission of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Norway: a retrospective observational study

VariableLength of hospital staya30-day readmissionb
Adjusted coefficient[95% CI]Adjusted odds ratio[95% CI]
Empirical antibiotic prescribing
 Penicillin G/V in monotherapy0Ref.1Ref.
 Penicillin G + gentamicin0.68[−0.10, 1.46]1.39[0.73, 2.66]
 Other antibiotics0.33[−0.43, 1.09]1.92[1.08, 3.42]
Antibiotic use pre-hospitalization−0.25[− 0.95, 0.46]1.15[0.66, 1.99]
Female0.08[−0.53, 0.69]0.50[0.30, 0.82]
Age0.04[0.02, 0.07]1.01[0.99, 1.03]
Comorbidities
 COPD0.22[−0.46, 0.86]2.07[1.26, 3.41]
 Heart failure1.40[0.62, 2.17]1.45[0.83, 2.51]
 Diabetes Mellitus I or II0.38[−0.52, 1.27]1.22[0.63, 2.37]
Nursing home resident−0.98[−2.05,2.17]1.40[0.64, 3.07]
Year admitted (2012 vs. 2010)−0.42[−0.73,-0.11]0.85[0.66, 1.08]
Hospital
 Hospital A0Ref1Ref.
 Hospital B0.81[−0,14, 1.76]0.74[0.37, 1.50]
 Hospital C1.10[0.34, 1.87]0.51[0.29, 0.88]
Pathogens
 None identified0Ref.1Ref.
S.pneumoniae1.22[0.10, 2.34]0.96[0.37, 2.47]
H.influenzae2.13[− 041, 4.67]3.01[0.65, 14.02]
M. or C. pneumoniae0.75[−0.98, 2.48]0.39[0.05, 3.22]
S.aureus4.10[1.24, 6.96]5.24[0.99, 27.6]
 Other bacteria5.19[2.98, 7.40]1.38[0.26, 7.38]
 Influenza virus A or B1.86[−0.83, 4.55]
 Other respiratory viruses0.44[−1.56, 2.44]0.85[0.10, 6.98]
 Two or more pathogens1.40[−1.30, 4.10]
CRB-65 score
 00Ref.1Ref.
 1−0.19[− 1.24, 0.85]0.82[0.32, 2.06]
 20.50[−0.65, 1.64]0.99[0.37, 2.61]
 31.92[0.35, 3.50]0.71[0.19, 2.66]
 41.63[−2.85, 6.11]
 Missing data−0.27[−1.55, 1.01]0.78[0.26, 2.39]
  1. CI confidence interval, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CRB-65 Confusion, Respiration, Blood pressure and Age
  2. a Linear regression to explore impact of empirical antibiotic prescribing on length of hospital stay. Adjusted for antibiotic use pre-hospitalization, gender, age, comorbidities, nursing home resident, year admitted (2012 vs. 2010), hospital, pathogens and severity of infection (CRB-65)
  3. b Logistic regression to explore impact of empirical antibiotic prescribing on 30-day readmission. Adjusted for antibiotic use pre-hospitalization, gender, age, comorbidities, nursing home resident, year admitted (2012 vs. 2010), hospital, pathogens and severity of infection (CRB-65)