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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the cohort

From: Cancer development in patients with COPD: a retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort in Korea

 Never smokerFormer smokerSmoker 
No COPDCOPDNo COPDCOPDNo COPDCOPDP
Number313,553 (65.45)7789 (1.63)41,359 (8.63)1085 (0.23)112,627 (23.51)2677 (0.56) 
Age (years)53.64 ± 9.6262.23 ± 9.8751.65 ± 9.1262.43 ± 10.1650.92 ± 8.7461.29 ± 9.83< 0.001
Gender (male), N (%)107,393 (34.25)2799 (35.94)39,292 (95.00)1005 (92.63)106,695 (94.73)2368 (88.46)< 0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.08 ± 3.0124.02 ± 3.3924.31 ± 2.7323.18 ± 3.0523.73 ± 2.9422.97 ± 3.28< 0.001
  < 2023,181 (7.39)847 (10.87)2205 (5.33)157 (14.47)11,102 (9.86)514 (19.20)< 0.001
 20 ≤ < 25178,681 (56.99)4071 (52.27)22,958 (55.51)642 (59.17)65,174 (57.87)1466 (54.76)< 0.001
 25 ≤ < 30101,536 (32.38)2556 (32.82)15,247 (36.87)265 (24.42)34,045 (30.23)633 (23.65)< 0.001
 30 ≤10,155 (3.24)315 (4.04)949 (2.29)21 (1.94)2306 (2.05)64 (2.39)< 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)126.71 ± 18.55130.61 ± 19.21128.56 ± 17.16130.07 ± 18.70127.71 ± 17.55128.88 ± 18.59< 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)97.28 ± 33.29100.50 ± 38.1899.56 ± 32.21101.26 ± 44.08100.40 ± 37.72101.86 ± 34.78< 0.001
Fasting serum glucose (mg/dL)200.88 ± 38.50201.56 ± 39.47201.17 ± 37.52196.79 ± 42.59199.10 ± 38.39195.80 ± 42.63< 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)313,553 (65.45)7789 (1.63)41,359 (8.63)1085 (0.23)112,627 (23.51)2677 (0.56)< 0.001
Exercise level
 Non exercise187,422(60.81)5387 (70.08)16,159 (39.74)619 (58.18)59,485 (52.97)1848 (69.42)< 0.001
 Once or twice a week63,023 (20.45)1078 (14.02)13,986 (34.40)239 (22.46)33,756 (30.06)450 (16.90)
 At least three times a week57,778 (18.75)1225 (15.90)10,517 (25.86)206 (19.36)19,063 (16.97)364 (13.67)
Incident rate of lung cancer per 100,000 person year: average of six arms = 27821675727112663941560<  0.001
Prevalence of cancer for 12 years, N (%)
 Lung cancer (C33-C34)7669 (2.44)609 (7.82)1263 (3.05)129 (11.89)4899 (4.35)398 (14.87)< 0.001
 Stomach cancer (C16)7979 (2.54)310 (3.98)1464 (3.54)64 (5.90)4170 (3.70)143 (5.34)< 0.001
 Colorectal cancer (C18-C20)12,126 (3.87)505 (6.48)1847 (4.47)65 (5.99)4783 (4.25)203 (7.58)< 0.001
 Liver cancer (C22)12,681 (4.04)446 (5.73)2091 (5.06)81 (7.47)6131 (5.44)188 (7.02)< 0.001
 AML (C92.0)181 (0.06)5 (0.06)19 (0.05)1 (0.09)74 (0.07)3 (0.11)0.600
 Esophageal cancer (C15)463 (0.15)29 (0.37)124 (0.30)3 (0.28)474 (0.42)15 (0.56)< 0.001
 Bladder cancer (C67)2367 (0.75)100 (1.28)426 (1.03)18 (1.66)1083 (0.96)39 (1.46)< 0.001
 Kidney cancer (C64-C66)1740 (0.55)58 (0.74)276 (0.67)12 (1.11)729 (0.65)24 (0.90)< 0.001
Past medical history, N (%)
 Hypertension29,436 (9.39)1257 (16.14)3334 (8.06)143 (13.18)5974 (5.30)282 (10.53)< 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus12,904 (4.12)539 (6.92)1949 (4.71)65 (5.99)4559 (4.05)173 (6.46)< 0.001
  1. Definition of abbreviations: AML Acute myeloid leukemia, BMI Body mass index, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease