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Table 2 Risk factors for the development of lung cancer

From: Cancer development in patients with COPD: a retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort in Korea

 Cox regression analysis
Univariate Hazard ratio (95% CI)p-valueMultivariate Hazard ratio (95% CI)p-value
Age (years)1.072 (1.070–1.074)< 0.0011.074 (1.072–1.076)< 0.001
Male (vs female)1.866 (1.803–1.931)< 0.0011.789 (1.717–1.864)< 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) < 0.001 < 0.001
 < 201.661(1.582–1.744) 1.323 (1.256–1.393) 
 20 ≤ < 25Reference Reference 
 25 ≤ < 300.852 (0.769–0.945) 0.885 (0.795–0.985) 
 30 ≤0.446 (0.396–0.501) 0.837 (0.705–0.994) 
History of hypertension1.414(1.344–1.488)< 0.0010.990(0.939–1.044)0.718
History of diabetes mellitus1.579(1.477–1.688)< 0.0011.186(1.108–1.269)< 0.001
COPD diagnosis3.752(3.530–3.988)< 0.0012.046(1.922–2.177)< 0.001
Exercise level < 0.001 < 0.001
 Never Exercise1.178 (1.129–1.229) 1.145 (1.095–1.198) 
 1–2 times a week0.888 (0.816–0.966) 1.010 (0.925–1.103) 
 ≥ 3 times a weekReference Reference 
Smoking status < 0.001 < 0.001
 Never smokerReference Reference 
 Former smoker1.277(1.205–1.352) 1.108(1.042–1.178) 
 Current smoker1.860(1.797–1.926) 1.689(1.622–1.759) 
  1. Definition of abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, * = statistically significant hazard ratio (p-value < 0.01)