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Table 3 COPD as a risk factor for the development of major cancers by multi-variate cox regression analyses

From: Cancer development in patients with COPD: a retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort in Korea

 Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
Model 1 Hazard ratio (95% CI)p-valueModel 2 Hazard ratio (95% CI)p-valueModel 3 Hazard ratio (95% CI)p-value
Lung cancer
 Never smoker without COPDReference Reference Reference 
Former smoker without COPD1.100 (1.035–1.170)0.0021.100 (1.035–1.169)0.0021.108 (1.043–1.178)< 0.001
Smoker without COPD1.752 (1.683–1.823)< 0.0011.749 (1.681–1.821)< 0.0011.689 (1.622–1.759)< 0.001
 Never smoker with COPD2.086 (1.960–2.220)< 0.0012.086 (1.960–2.220)< 0.0012.046 (1.922–2.177)< 0.001
 Former smoker with COPD2.295 (2.105–2.503)< 0.0012.294 (2.104–2.502)< 0.0012.267 (2.079–2.472)0.001
 Current smoker with COPD3.654 (3.396–3.932)< 0.0013.650 (3.392–3.927)< 0.0013.456 (3.211–3.720)< 0.001
Stomach cancer
 Never smoker without COPDReference Reference Reference 
Former smoker without COPD1.105 (1.042–1.172)0.0011.104 (1.041–1.171)0.0011.111 (1.048–1.178)< 0.001
Smoker without COPD1.249 (1.198–1.302)< 0.0011.249 (1.197–1.302)< 0.0011.289 (1.184–1.289)< 0.001
 Never smoker with COPD1.067 (0.976–1.167)0.1541.067 (0.976–1.167)0.1551.056 (0.966–1.155)0.231
 Former smoker with COPD1.179 (1.060–1.312)0.0021.178 (1.060–1.311)0.0031.174 (1.055–1.306)0.003
 Current smoker with COPD1.333 (1.208–1.470)< 0.0011.332 (1.208–1.470)< 0.0011.305 (1.183–1.440)< 0.001
Colorectal cancer
 Never smoker without COPDReference Reference Reference 
Former smoker without COPD1.045 (0.992–1.102)0.0961.043 (0.990–1.099)0.1131.046 (0.992–1.102)0.095
Smoker without COPD1.086 (1.046–1.128)< 0.0011.089 (1.048–1.131)< 0.0011.088 (1.047–1.130)< 0.001
 Never smoker with COPD1.277 (1.197–1.374)< 0.0011.277 (1.186–1.374)< 0.0011.273 (1.183–1.370)< 0.001
 Former smoker with COPD1.335 (1.221–1.460)< 0.0011.332 (1.218–1.456)< 0.0011.331 (1.217–1.455)< 0.001
 Current smoker with COPD1.387 (1.278–1.505)< 0.0011.390 (1.281–1.509)< 0.0011.385 (1.276–1.503)< 0.001
Liver cancer
 Never smoker without COPDReference Reference Reference 
Former smoker without COPD1.034 (0.985–1.086)0.1811.031 (0.982–1.083)0.2191.040 (0.990–1.093)0.116
Smoker without COPD1.168 (1.128–1.209)< 0.0011.168 (1.128–1.210)< 0.0011.162 (1.122–1.204)< 0.001
 Never smoker with COPD1.229 (1.139–1.322)< 0.0011.228 (1.138–1.325)< 0.0011.217 (1.128–1.313)< 0.001
 Former smoker with COPD1.271 (1.162–1.391)< 0.0011.266 (1.157–1.386)< 0.0011.266 (1.157–1.386)< 0.001
 Current smoker with COPD1.435 (1.321–1.560)< 0.0011.434 (1.320–1.559)< 0.0011.415 (1.302–1.537)< 0.001
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + additional adjustment for history of hypertension, and history of diabetes mellitus
  3. Model 3: Model 2 + additional adjustment for BMI and Exercise
  4. Definition of abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, * = statistically significant hazard ratio (p-value < 0.01)