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Table 4 COPD as a risk factor for the development of other cancers by multi-variate cox regression analyses

From: Cancer development in patients with COPD: a retrospective analysis of the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort in Korea

 Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
Model 1 Hazard ratio (95% CI)p-valueModel 2 Hazard ratio (95% CI)p-valueModel 3 Hazard ratio (95% CI)p-value
AML
 Never smoker without COPDReference Reference Reference 
Former smoker without COPD0.617 (0.382–0.998)0.0490.616 (0.381–0.996)0.0480.632 (0.391–1.022)0.061
Smoker without COPD0.922 (0.684–1.242)0.5930.925 (0.686–1.246)0.6080.914 (0.678–1.233)0.556
 Never smoker with COPD1.064 (0.544–2.083)0.8561.064 (0.544–2.082)0.8571.047 (0.535–2.049)0.895
 Former smoker with COPD0.657 (0.289–1.494)0.3160.655 (0.288–1.491)0.3140.661 (0.291–1.505)0.324
 Current smoker with COPD0.981 (0.473–2.037)0.9590.984 (0.474–2.043)0.9650.957 (0.460–1.989)0.905
Esphageal cancer
 Never smoker without COPDReference Reference Reference 
Former smoker without COPD1.303 (1.061–1.600)0.0121.303 (1.061–1.599)0.0121.304 (1.062–1.601)0.011
Smoker without COPD2.082(1.810–2.395)< 0.0012.080 (1.808–2.394)< 0.0011.968 (1.709–2.267)< 0.001
 Never smoker with COPD0.973 (0.722–1.312)0.8580.973 (0.722–1.312)0.8580.945 (0.700–1.274)0.708
 Former smoker with COPD1.268 (0.885–1.817)0.1971.268 (0.884–1.817)0.1971.231 (0.859–1.765)0.257
 Current smoker with COPD2.026 (1.460–2.810)< 0.0012.024 (1.459–2.808)< 0.0011.859 (1.338–2.583)< 0.001
Bladder cancer
 Never smoker without COPDReference Reference Reference 
Former smoker without COPD1.090 (0.977–1.216)0.1211.088 (0.975–1.214)0.1291.089 (0.976–1.215)0.127
Smoker without COPD1.131 (1.044–1.225)0.0031.136 (1.049–1.231)0.0021.142 (1.053–1.237)0.001
 Never smoker with COPD1.145 (0.973–1.347)0.1041.145 (0.973–1.347)0.1031.146 (0.974–1.348)0.101
 Former smoker with COPD1.248 (1.027–1.516)0.0261.246 (1.026–1.514)0.0271.247 (1.027–1.516)0.026
 Current smoker with COPD1.295 (1.081–1.550)0.0051.301(1.087–1.558)0.0041.308 (1.092–1.566)0.004
Kidney cancer
 Never smoker without COPDReference Reference Reference 
Former smoker without COPD1.002 (0.875–1.148)0.9750.998 (0.871–1.143)0.9740.999 (0.873–1.144)0.992
Smoker without COPD1.054 (0.956–1.163)0.2881.066 (0.967–1.176)0.1981.075 (0.974–1.185)0.152
 Never smoker with COPD1.076 (0.870–1.331)0.4991.076 (0.870–1.330)0.5011.077 (0.871–1.332)0.493
 Former smoker with COPD1.079 (0.839–1.386)0.5551.073 (0.835–1.379)0.5811.076 (0.838–1.383)0.565
Current smoker with COPD1.135 (0.899–1.432)0.2871.147 (0.909–1.447)0.2471.157 (0.917–1.461)0.219
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + additional adjustment for history of hypertension, and history of diabetes mellitus
  3. Model 3: Model 2 + additional adjustment for BMI and Exercise
  4. Definition of abbreviations: AML Acute myeloid leukemia, BMI Body mass index, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, * = statistically significant hazard ratio (p-value < 0.01)