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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups

From: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients hospitalised with influenza A-related pneumonia: a multicenter retrospective study

Variables Total (n = 693) IPA group (n = 21) Control group (n = 672) p-valuea
Age (years, median, IQR) 61.0 (36.0–76.0) 67.0 (61.0–82.0) 60.0 (36.0–76.0) <  0.001
Male (n, %) 461 (66.5) 18 (85.7) 443 (65.9) 0.058
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 24.4 ± 3.6 21.5 ± 0.4 24.5 ± 3.6 0.014
Comorbidities (n, %) 402 (58.0) 18 (85.7) 384 (57.1) 0.009
 Diabetes mellitus 92 (13.3) 15 (71.4) 77 (11.5) <  0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease 72 (10.4) 4 (19.0) 68 (10.1) 0.338
 COPD 40 (5.8) 6 (28.6) 34 (5.1) <  0.001
 Asthma 19 (2.7) 3 (14.3) 16 (2.4) 0.009
 Chronic kidney disease 16 (2.3) 2 (9.5) 14 (2.1) 0.134
 Malignant solid tumor 16 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 16 (2.4) > 0.999
 Chronic congestive heart failure 3 (0.4) 3 (14.3) 0 (0.0) <  0.001
Smoking history (n, %) 243 (35.1) 7 (33.3) 236 (35.1) 0.866
Alcoholism history (n, %) 92 (13.3) 0 (0.0) 92 (13.7) 0.135
Antibiotics use before admission (n, %) 587 (84.7) 15 (71.4) 572 (85.1) 0.159
Clinical characteristics (n, %)
 Confusion 32 (4.6) 0 (0.0) 32 (4.8) 0.620
 SBP < 90 mmHg 8 (1.2) 1 (4.8) 7 (1.0) 0.593
 Leukocytes > 10 × 109/L 118 (17.0) 15 (71.4) 103 (15.3) <  0.001
 Lymphocytes < 0.8 × 109/L 299/677 (44.2) 15 (71.4) 284/656 (43.3) 0.011
 HB < 100 g/L 69 (10.0) 5 (23.8) 64 (9.5) 0.075
 Albumin < 35 g/L 58/639 (9.1) 6 (28.6) 52/618 (8.4) 0.006
 BG > 11 mmol/L 48 (6.9) 0 (0.0) 48 (7.1) 0.405
 BUN > 7 mmol/L 183/685 (26.7) 9 (42.9) 174/664 (26.2) 0.090
 Serum PCT > 0.1 ng/ml 248/541 (45.8) 2 (9.5) 246/520 (47.3) 0.001
 PO2/FiO2 < 300 mmHg 340/639 (53.2) 16 (76.2) 324/618 (52.4) 0.032
Radiology (n, %)
 Cavity 19 (2.7) 3 (14.3) 16 (2.4) 0.009
 Multiple nodules 151 (21.8) 8 (38.1) 143 (21.3) 0.116
ICs use before IPA diagnosis (n, %) 3 (0.4) 3 (14.3) 0 (0.0) <  0.001
Systemic corticosteroids use before IPA diagnosis (n, %) 132 (19.0) 18 (85.7) 114 (17.0) <  0.001
Dose of systemic corticosteroids a (mg/kg, mean ± SD) 0.6 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.3 0.853
Early NAIs b use (n, %) 232 (33.3) 10 (47.6) 222 (33.0) 0.163
Coinfection with other community-acquired pathogens (n, %) 265 (38.2) 3 (14.3) 262 (39.0) 0.016
  1. IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, RR respiratory rates, WBC white blood cell count, HB hemoglobin, BG blood glucose, BUN blood urea nitrogen, PCT procalcitonin, PO2/FiO2 arterial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspiration oxygen, ICs inhaled corticosteroids, NAIs neuraminidase inhibitors; a: methylprednisolone or its equivalent; b: Neuraminidase inhibitors refer to any dose of oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir; a: IPA group vs control group. The bolded values are p-values < 0.05, which represent significant differences between subgroups