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Table 4 Cox proportional hazard analyses for factors affecting relapse free survival

From: Operative invasiveness does not affect the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer

   Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variables   HR (95%CI) p-value HR (95%CI) p-value
Gender female 1    
male 1.92 (1.27–2.99) < 0.01   
Age < 70y 1    
≥ 70y 1.11 (0.75–1.63) 0.57   
Charlson comorbidity index 0–2 1    
3–4 1.29 (0.41–7.85) 0.70   
Smoking status never 1    
Former / current 2.10 (1.38–3.28) < 0.01   
CEA ≤ 5 ng/ml 1   1  
>  5 ng/ml 1.98 (1.36–2.89) < 0.01 1.58 (1.05–2.38) 0.02
Operative approach Thoracotomy 1    
VATS 0.57 (0.33–0.82) < 0.01   
Wound length ≤ 10 cm 1    
>  10 cm 2.07 (1.37–3.08) < 0.01   
Operation time ≤ 248 min 1    
>  248 min 1.62 (1.09–2.44) < 0.01   
Operative procedure Seg / Lob 1    
Bilob / Pneumo 1.99 (1.01–3.55) 0.04   
pStage I 1   1  
II - IIIA 4.59 (3.13–6.78) < 0.01 2.57 (1.60–4.18) <  0.01
Histology Ad 1    
Non-Ad 1.32 (0.86–1.97) 0.19   
Differentiation G1 1    
G2 – G4 2.09 (1.38–3.24) < 0.01   
Ly absent 1    
present 4.38 (2.25–9.01) < 0.01   
V absent 1   1  
present 3.26 (2.16–5.05) < 0.01 1.95 (1.15–3.38) 0.01
preCRP ≤ 0.14 1   1  
>  0.14 2.80 (1.91–4.17) <  0.01 1.91 (1.22–3.00) < 0.01
postCRP ≤ 14.49 1    
>  14.49 1.83 (1.24–2.72) < 0.01   
Clavien-Dindo grade 0 - I 1    
II - IIIb 1.36 (0.86–2.09) 0.17   
  1. CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, VATS video-assisted thoracic surgery, Seg segmentectomy, Lob lobectomy, Bilob bilobectomy, Pneumo pneumonectomy, pStage pathological stage,
  2. Ly lymphatic invasion, V vascular invasion, preCRP preoperative C-reactive protein, postCRP postoperative C-reactive protein