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Table 5 Cox proportional hazard analyses for factors affecting overall survival

From: Operative invasiveness does not affect the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer

   Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variables   HR (95%CI) p-value HR (95%CI) p-value
Gender female 1    
male 3.32 (1.89–6.31) < 0.01   
Age < 70y 1    
≥ 70y 1.08 (0.67–1.70) 0.74   
Charlson comorbidity index 0–2 1    
3–4 1.37 (0.22–4.38) 0.67   
Smoking status never 1   1  
Former /current 4.12 (2.31–8.03) < 0.01 2.36 (1.07–5.56) 0.03
CEA ≤ 5 ng/ml 1    
>  5 ng/ml 1.88 (1.20–2.95) < 0.01   
Operative approach Thoracotomy 1    
VATS 0.45 (0.28–0.75) < 0.01   
Wound length ≤ 10 cm 1    
>  10 cm 2.41 (1.51–3.79) < 0.01   
Operation time ≤ 248 min 1    
>  248 min 1.84 (1.09–3.23) 0.02   
Operative procedure Seg / Lob 1    
Bilob / Pneumo 2.98 (1.48–5.41) < 0.01   
pStage I 1   1  
II - IIIA 4.83 (3.05–7.82) < 0.01 3.26 (1.77–6.08) < 0.01
Histology Ad 1    
Non-Ad 1.60 (0.98–2.55) 0.05   
Differentiation G1 1    
G2 – G4 1.92 (1.19–3.17) < 0.01   
Ly absent 1    
present 1.95 (1.24–3.11) < 0.01   
V absent 1   1  
present 3.36 (2.06–5.69) < 0.01 2.80 (1.49–5.38) < 0.01
preCRP ≤ 0.14 1    
>  0.14 2.85 (1.80–4.61) < 0.01   
postCRP ≤ 14.49 1    
>  14.49 2.20 (1.35–3.69) < 0.01   
Clavien-Dindo grade 0 - I 1    
II - IIIb 1.45 (0.83–2.43) 0.17   
  1. CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, VATS video-assisted thoracic surgery, Seg segmentectomy, Lob lobectomy, Bilob bilobectomy, Pneumo pneumonectomy, pStage pathological stage,
  2. Ly lymphatic invasion, V vascular invasion, preCRP preoperative C-reactive protein, postCRP postoperative C-reactive protein