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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of patients with AKI who had improved renal function and those without during hospitalization

From: The incidence, risk factors and prognosis of acute kidney injury in severe and critically ill patients with COVID-19 in mainland China: a retrospective study

Characteristic Patients with AKI(N = 92) Improved(n = 16) Not improved(n = 76) P value
Age, median (IQR), y 65 (59–73) 63 (49–66) 65 (61–74) 0.065
Time from admission to diagnosis of AKI, (day) 9 (5–12) 5 (3–9) 9 (6–14) < 0.001
Sex     0.059
 Female 30 (32.6) 2 (12.5) 28 (36.8)
 Male 62 (67.4) 14 (87.5) 48 (63.2)
KDIGO staging
 1 13 (14.1) 3 (18.8) 10 (13.2) 0.850
 2 15 (16.3) 3 (18.8) 12 (15.8) > 0.999
 3 64 (69.6) 10 (62.5) 54 (71.1) 0.706
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 45 (48.9) 8 (50.0) 37 (48.7) 0.924
 Diabetes 23 (25.0) 6 (37.5) 17 (22.4) 0.341
 Cardiovascular diseases 9 (9.8) 0 (0.0) 9 (11.8) 0.324
 Malignancy 10 (10.9) 2 (12.50) 8 (10.5) 0.651
 Cerebrovascular disease 12 (5.7) 12 (6.2) 0 (0.0) > 0.999
 Chronic Kidney Disease 6 (6.5) 3 (18.8) 3 (4.0) 0.063
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2 (2.2) 1 (6.3) 1 (1.3) NA
 Connective Tissue Disease 2 (2.2) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.6) NA
Complication
 Sepsis 72 (78.3) 10 (62.5) 62 (81.6) 0.178
 Right heart failurea 28 (30.4) 9 (56.3) 19 (25.0) 0.030
 Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation 27 (29.4) 5 (31.3) 22 (29.0) > 0.999
Treatment
 CRRT 52 (56.5) 9 (56.3) 43 (56.6) 0.981
 Drug with Nephrotoxicity 38 (41.3) 7 (43.8) 31 (40.8) 0.827
 Respiratory support: COT 2 (2.2) 1 (6.3) 1 (1.3) NA
 Respiratory support: HFN 6 (6.5) 0 (0.0) 6 (7.9) NA
 Respiratory support: NIV 4 (4.4) 1 (6.25) 3 (4.0) NA
 Respiratory support: IMV 80 (87.0) 14 (87.5) 66 (86.8) > 0.999
Laboratory Findingsb
 Baseline serum creatinine (μmol/L) 75.5 (59.8–102.8) 88.6 (54.4–229.8) 72.3 (61.8–90.8) 0.169
 Maximum PaCO2 (mmHg) 69.5 (46.8–81.3) 65.5 (51.7–76.0) 72.0 (46.8–82.0) 0.881
 Maximum PaCO2 > = 60 mmHg 55 (59.8) 9 (56.3) 46 (60.5) 0.751
 Minimum PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mmHg) 73.0 (62.8–138.6) 133.5 (106.0–230.0) 67.0 (62.0–88.8) < 0.001
 Minimum PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 150 mmHg 70 (76.1) 9 (56.3) 61 (80.3) 0.085
 Maximum IL-6 (pg/ml) 17.9 (12.6–33.5) 18.0 (14.0–97.3) 17.9 (12.1–31.5) 0.323
 Maximum serum ferritin (ng/ml) 2001.0 (1329.6–2001.0) 2001.0 (1922.2–2001.0) 2001.00 (1296.5–2001.0) 0.889
  1. Data in bold indicated the comparisons with statistical significance
  2. a Right heart failure: defined according to the clinical diagnosis and ultrasonographic manifestations. & Drugs with Nephrotoxicity: mainly included aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and colistin. b, Data were collected before the development of AKI among patients who had developed AKI; The most abnormal data during hospitalization were presented among patients who did not develop AKI. PaCO2: arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2/FiO2 ratio: the ratio between the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and the inspiratory concentration of oxygen