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Table 4 Clinical characteristics of patients with AKI who had survived and those not

From: The incidence, risk factors and prognosis of acute kidney injury in severe and critically ill patients with COVID-19 in mainland China: a retrospective study

Characteristic Total(N = 210) Non-survivor(n = 93) Survivor(n = 117) P value
Age, median (IQR), yrs 64 (56–71) 66 (61–73) 62 (53–69) 0.002
Sex     0.997
 Female 79 (37.6) 35 (37.6) 44 (37.6)
 Male 131 (62.4) 58 (62.4) 73 (62.4)
Severity of Covid-19     < 0.001
 Severe 60 (28.6) 1 (1.1) 59 (50.4)
 Critical 150 (71.4) 92 (98.9) 58 (49.6)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 98 (46.7) 43 (46.2) 55 (47.0) 0.911
 Diabetes 44 (21.0) 21 (22.6) 23 (19.7) 0.605
 Cardiovascular diseases 23 (11.0) 10 (10.8) 13 (11.1) 0.934
 Malignancy 14 (6.7) 9 (9.7) 5 (4.3) 0.119
 Cerebrovascular disease 12 (5.7) 7 (7.5) 5 (4.3) 0.313
 Chronic Kidney Disease 10 (4.8) 3 (3.2) 7 (6.0) 0.545
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 5 (2.4) 2 (2.2) 3 (2.6) NA
 Connective Tissue Disease 2 (1.0) 1 (1.1) 1 (0.9) NA
Complication
 Sepsis 112 (53.3) 72 (77.4) 40 (34.2) < 0.001
 Acute kidney injury 92 (43.8) 65 (69.9) 27 (23.1) < 0.001
 AKI KDIGO stage 1 13 (6.2) 6 (6.5) 7 (6.0) 0.889
 AKI KDIGO stage 2 15 (7.1) 10 (10.8) 5 (4.3) 0.070
 AKI KDIGO stage 3 64 (30.5) 49 (52.7) 15 (12.8) < 0.001
 Right heart failurea 44 (21.0) 25 (26.9) 19 (16.2) 0.060
 Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation 32 (15.2) 26 (28.0) 6 (5.1) < 0.001
Treatment
 Continuous renal replacement therapy 54 (25.7) 39 (41.9) 15 (12.82) < 0.001
 Drug with Nephrotoxicity 52 (24.8) 28 (30.1) 24 (20.51) 0.110
 Respiratory support: COT 41 (19.5) 0 (0.00) 41 (35.04) 0.287
 Respiratory support: HFN 22 (10.5) 3 (3.23) 19 (16.24) 0.002
 Respiratory support: NIV 29 (13.8) 10 (10.75) 19 (16.24) 0.252
 Respiratory support: IMV 118 (56.2) 80 (86.0) 38 (32.5) < 0.001
Laboratory Findings
 Baseline Scr(umol/L) 69.7 (55.9–85.9) 71.1 (58.4–90.8) 69.0 (54.4–81.3) 0.165
 Maximum PaCO2(mmHg) 52.0 (39.0–73.8) 71.0 (54.0–79.0) 43.0 (38.0–54.0) < 0.001
 Maximum PaCO2 > = 60 mmHg 82 (39.1) 61 (65.6) 21 (18.0) < 0.001
 Minimum P/F(mmHg) 109.0 (65.0–207.7) 65.0 (58.0–75.9) 190.0 (130.0–220.0) < 0.001
 Minimum P/F < 150 mmHg 116 (55.2) 82 (88.2) 34 (29.1) < 0.001
 Maximum IL-6 (pg/ml) 14.3 (9.9–24.9) 17.2 (11.7–31.2) 13.6 (9.3–22.2) 0.031
 Maximum serum ferritin (ng/ml) 1607.8 (786.2–2001.0) 2001.0 (1130.0–2001.0) 1000.7 (590.2–2001.0) < 0.001
  1. Right heart failure: defined according to the clinical diagnosis and ultrasonographic manifestations. & Drugs with Nephrotoxicity: mainly included aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and colistin. a, Data were collected before the development of AKI among patients who had developed AKI; The most abnormal data during hospitalization were presented among patients who did not develop AKI. PaCO2: arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2/FiO2 ratio: the ratio between the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and the inspiratory concentration of oxygen
  2. Data in bold indicated the comparisons with statistical significance
  3. Non-survivor: Deceased within 28 days of ICU admission