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Table 4 Disparities between the markers of cross-sectional studies on children-adolescents without respiratory diseases, where spirometry markers were assessed, and the relation between lung function and body mass, expressed as either body mass index or norm weight/overweight/obesity preventing the performance of meta-analysis

From: Lung function in obese children and adolescents without respiratory disease: a systematic review

Authors (year) Objective Spirometry measurement Other lung function measurment Obesity as an independent variable Exercise
FVC FEV1 FEV1/FVC FEF25–75% PEF ERV
Peng et al. [11] (2016) - China To evaluate whether weight index is associated with high blood pressure, reduced FVC, dental caries and low vision, as well as whether nutritional status can predict diseases in schoolchildren Yes No No No No No No No
Özgen et al. [13] (2015) - Turkey To evaluate the relation between lung function tests and functional capacity during exercise in children with obesity Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Kongkiattkul et al. [14] (2015) - Thailand To evaluate the correlation between obesity indexes (anthropometry and bioimpedance) and lung function parameters and to identify whether the indexes correlate with abnormalities in lung function of children and adolescents with obesity Yes Yes Yes Yes No No + Body Plethysmography Yes No
Ferreira et al. [15] (2014) - Brazil To assess the influence of obesity on physical and lung function of children and adolescents with obesity and to associate the variables with a control group Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Rastogi et al. [16] (2014) – United States of America To investigate the association between total fat, trunk fat and metabolic abnormality with lung function of a sample of minority urban adolescents Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes + Body Plethysmography No  
Faria et al. [17] (2014) - Brazil To investigate lung function response during exercise in adolescents with non-morbid obesity and without respiratory diseases Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes + Respiraory Muscular Force Yes Yes
Rio-Camacho et al. [20] (2013) - Spain To investigate the left ventricular mass (echocardiography) of children with obesity, with and without metabolic syndrome; to evaluate the association between the level of adipokine and circulating cytokine and the alteration of left ventricular mass and spirometry; and to determine the best variable to predict cardiovascular risk Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
Gibson et al. [19] (2014) - Australia To evaluate (i) whether children and adolescents with overweight or obesity can be submitted to submaximal exercise; (ii) respiratory limitations during exercise in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity compared to the control group Yes Yes No Yes No No + Multi-breath Nitrogen Wash Out Yes Yes
Chen et al. [22] (2009) - Canada To evaluate waist circunference as a predictor of lung function markers and to compare it with BMI in children and adolescents Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Ferreira et al. [25] (2017) - Brazil To evaluate lung function of children and adolescents with obesity (without asthma) by Spirometry and volumetric capnography and to compare them to healthy control of the same age group Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes + Volumetric Capnography Yes No
Del-Rio Navarro et al. [26] (2013) - Mexico To compare bronchial hyperreactivity by the methacholine challenge testing in Mexican children with normal weight. In addition, to associate the group with normal weight with children with obesity or morbid obesity Yes Yes No Yes Yes No + Methacoline Challenge Testing Yes No
Jeon et al. [28] (2009) – South Korea To evaluate the factors that influence lung function in female adolescents, focusing on the hormonal factors of the menstrual cycle and obesity Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
He et al. [29] (2009) - China To evaluate the relationship of obesity and asthma, symptom of asthma and lung function of Chinese schoolchildren using the definition of overweight and obesity of a Chinese group Yes Yes No Yes No No No No
Silva et al. [30] (2011) - Brazil To assess the onset of exercise-induced bronchospasm in children and adolescents, without asthma and overweight Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No + Peak Expiratory Flow Meter Yes Yes
Assumpção et al. [32] (2017) - Brazil To compare IOS parameters of children with normal weight, overweight and obesity Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No + Impulse Oscillometry Yes No
Cibella et al. [33] (2015) - Italy To investigate the effects of weight on lung function of healthy children in a sample registered in 2 cross-sectional surveys with selected age group Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Silva et al. [34] (2015) - Brazil To evaluate the effects of posture on thoracoabdominal kinematics of children with obesity and to compare them with a control group with normal weight Yes Yes Yes No No No + Respiraory Muscular Force + Optoelectronic Plethysmography Yes No
Torun et al. [35] (2014) - Turkey To compare lung function in children with normal weight, overweight, obesity or morbid obesity and to evaluate the effects of degree of obesity on lung function Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Khan et al. [36] (2014) - Canada To associate anthropometric measures and lung function in children Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No
Rosa et al. [37] (2014) - Brazil To evaluate respiratory muscular strength by maximum respiratory pressure in healthy, schoolchildren with overweight and obesity, and to identify if the anthropometric and respiratory variables are related to the outcomes No Yes No No No No + Respiraory Muscular Force Yes No
Assunção et al. [38] (2014) - Brazil To describe pulmonary functional alterations in asymptomatic and overweight children and adolescents Yes Yes Yes Yes No No + Helium Washout Yes No
Alghadir et al. [40] (2012) - Saudi Arabia To investigate the relationship between severity of obesity and parameters of lung function, comparing lung function in Saudi men with overweight and obesity with individuals with normal weight, and to compare the value found with the reference values for Caucasian individuals Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No
Paralikar et al. [41] (2012) - India To evaluate lung function in adolescents with obesity in the city of Baroda, Gujarat Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Supriyatno et al. [42] (2010) - Indonesia To determine the prevalence of abnormalities in lung function among Indonesian male adolescents and young people with obesity Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
  1. ERV Expiratory reserve volume, FVC Forced vital capacity, FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in the first second of forced vital capacity, FEV1/FVC forced expiratory volume in the first second and forced vital capacity ratio, FEF25–75% Forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of forced vital capacity, PEF Peak expiratory flow measured by spirometry, + Studies that showed comparative markers with greater value in obesity or positive associations with variables that are indicative of obesity, − Studies that showed comparative markers with lower value in obesity or with negative association with variables that are indicative of obesity