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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the studied population and laboratory findings at admission

From: Broncho-alveolar inflammation in COVID-19 patients: a correlation with clinical outcome

  IMW (N = 5) ICU (N = 28) P value
Age (years)a 64.0 (58.0–66.0) 59.5 (50.0–64.5) 0.2725
Dead – N(%) 0 (0) 12 (42.8) 0.1329
Male gender – N(%) 4 (80.0) 22 (78.6) > 0.999
Smoking history – N(%)
 - Never smoked 0 (0) 24 (85.7) 0.0005§
 - Former smoker 5 (100) 3 (10.7) 0.0002§
 - Current smoker 0 (0) 1 (3.6) > 0.999
Comorbidities – N(%)
 - Any 5 (100) 14 (50.0) 0.0574
 - Arterial hypertension 2 (40.0) 6 (21.4) 0.5736
 - Chronic heart disease 2 (40.0) 3 (10.7) 0.1546
 - Cerebrovascular disease 0 (0) 1 (3.6) > 0.999
 - Chronic obstructive lung disease 0 (0) 1 (3.6) > 0.999
 - Lung transplant 3 (60.0) 0 (0) 0.0018§
 - Diabetes mellitus type II 1 (20.0) 2 (7.1) 0.3996
 - Cancer 1 (20.0) 1 (3.6) 0.2841
 - Immunosuppression 4 (80.0) 2 (7.1) 0.0017§
Symptoms – N(%)
 - Fever 5 (100) 27 (96.4) > 0.999
 - Dyspnea, cough 1 (20.0) 28 (100) 0.0001§
 - Diarrhea, nausea 2 (40.0) 2 (7.1) 0.0993
 - Dysgeusia, anosmia 1 (20.0) 0(0) 0.1515
Days between symptoms onset and hospitalizationa 7.0 (3.0–11.0) 6.0 (4.0–9.0) 0.9589
Days in CPAP prior intubationa 2.0 (1.0–6.5) na
Days between symptoms onset and BAL samplinga 8.0 (4.0–12.0) 25.0 (20.0–30.0) 0.6852
SOFA scoread 12.0 (8.0–13.0) na
Laboratory findingsad
 - PaO2/FiO2 ratio 333.4 (195.5–379.1) 121.0 (97.5–157.5) 0.0060§
 - White cell count (cells·ml− 1) 7720.0 (4920.0–11,890.0) 13,700.0 (9400.0–16,810.0) 0.0379§
 - Lymphocyte count (cells·ml− 1) 900.0 (470.0–1990.0) 1130.0 (760.0–1675.0) 0.5807
 - Hemoglobin (cells·ml−1) 10.7 (9.8–12.8) 10.05 (9.2–10.8) 0.2997
 - Platelet count (cells·ml− 1) 278.0 (158.0–368.0) 353.0 (176.0–361.0) 0.9586
 - LDH (mU ml− 1) 269.0 (171.5–339.0) 414.5 (419.5–547.8) 0.0169§
 - CK (mU ml− 1) 120.0 (46.0–582.5) 66.5 (32.5–419.8) 0.5368
 - D-dimer (ug l−1) 1077.0 (689.0–1465.0) 3299.0 (1599.0–5497.0) > 0.999
 - Ferritin (ng ml− 1) 1191.5 (475.3–1928.0) 1413.0 (298.8–2534.0) 0.8081
 - Albumin (g l− 1) 3.1 (2.4–3.6) 2.0 (2.0–2.1) 0.0015§
 - CRP (mg dl− 1) 11.3 (3.2–12.1) 36.1 (15.4–137.6) 0.0228§
 - Procalcitonin (ng ml− 1) 0.1 (0.1–1.1) 0.4 (0.3–1.0) 0.2135
 - Serum IL6 (ng l−1)b 41.1 (13.4–72.5) 476.5 (110.6–1636.0) 0.0102§
Bacterial co-infections - N(%)c 2 (40.0) 21 (75.0) 0.2911
Fungal co-infections - N(%)c 0 (0) 4 (14.3) 0.5997
Viral co-infections - N(%)c 0 (0) 1 (3.6) > 0.999
  1. §significant difference (p < 0.05 with respect to IMW)
  2. aData are expressed as median and interquartile range (IQR)
  3. bData regarding serum IL6 levels are missing for 12 ICU patients (42.8%)
  4. cAll pathogens were isolated on BAL
  5. d Referred to the same day of BAL