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Table 2 Prevalence and Adjusted effect of Asthma among young women aged 15–49 years by household environment and background characteristics, India 2015–16

From: Socio-economic Correlates and Spatial Heterogeneity in the Prevalence of Asthma among Young Women in India

Household, Env. & Background Characteristics Percent Odds Ratio Lower Upper
Improved source of drinking water
 No® 2.16    
 Yes 1.90 1.00 0.95 1.05
Improved source toilet facility
 No® 1.81    
 Yes 2.02 1.07** 1.01 1.13
Clean cooking fuel
 No® 1.84    
 Yes 2.07 1.03 0.97 1.09
Separate room used as kitchen
 No® 1.95    
 Yes 1.93 0.95** 0.91 0.99
Household with no crowding
 No® 1.81    
 Yes 2.11 1.11*** 1.07 1.15
Consumption of any tobacco
 No® 1.86    
 Yes 3.35 1.66*** 1.56 1.76
Level of education
 No education® 2.24    
 Primary 2.43 0.93** 0.88 0.99
 Secondary 1.79 0.62*** 0.59 0.65
 Higher 1.37 0.44*** 0.40 0.48
Place of residence
 Urban® 2.05    
 Rural 1.88 1.02 0.97 1.07
Caste
 SC® 1.82    
 ST 1.77 0.92** 0.85 0.98
 OBC 1.92 1.02 0.97 1.08
 Others 2.10 1.22*** 1.15 1.30
Religion
 Hindu® 1.95    
 Muslim 1.75 0.84*** 0.79 0.89
 Others 2.20 1.18*** 1.10 1.27
Region
 Eastern® 2.32    
 Western 1.42 0.64*** 0.60 0.69
 Northern 1.20 0.59*** 0.56 0.63
 Southern 2.94 1.48*** 1.39 1.58
 North-eastern 1.37 0.68*** 0.62 0.73
 Central 1.86 0.94 0.87 1.01
Wealth index
 Poorest® 1.73    
 Poorer 1.89 1.14*** 1.06 1.21
 Middle 2.00 1.11*** 1.03 1.20
 Richer 2.16 1.25*** 1.14 1.37
 Richest 1.87 1.40*** 1.26 1.56
Mass media
 No® 1.70    
 Yes 1.99 1.18*** 1.12 1.25
India 1.94    
  1. The values of the odds ratio are significant at *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01with respect to®reference category