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Table 1 Aetiologies of pneumothorax

From: Recurrent pneumothorax and intrapulmonary cavitary lesions in a male patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and a novel missense mutation in the COL3A1 gene: a case report

Primary spontaneous pneumothorax
Associated with male sex, increased height, thin body habitus, and smoking
Secondary pneumothorax
Airway diseases
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
 Cystic fibrosis
Infectious causes
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
 Necrotizing bacterial pneumonia
Interstitial lung disease
 Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
 Langerhans cell histiocytosis
 Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia
Connective tissue disease
 Ankylosing spondylitis
 Sjögren syndrome
 Rheumatoid arthritis
 Marfan syndrome
 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
 Bronchogenic carcinoma
 Metastatic disease
 Catamenial pneumothorax
 Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome