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Table 2 Summary of nodule characteristics

From: The utility of simultaneous CT-guided localization for multiple pulmonary nodules using microcoil before video-assisted thoracic surgery

Variable Different groups p-value
Group A Group B
Nodule size (mm)    
Median ± IQR (range) 7.1 ± 3.6 (2.3–18.9) 9.8 ± 5.8 (2.8–26.8)  < 0.001
 ≤ 5 mm 10 12  < 0.001
 > 5–10 mm 38 106  
 > 10–15 mm 9 74  
 > 15 mm 1 29  
Nodule location    
Right/Left side 39/19 131/90 0.268
RUL/RML/RLL 21/0/18 86/14/31 0.011
LUL/LLL 10/9 63/27  
Nodule type    
Solid/Part-solid/GGO 20/12/26 36/33/152 0.002
Depth from pleura (mm)    
Median ± IQR (range) 12.6 ± 13.6 (0.0–44.4) 10.3 ± 16.7 (0.0–53.1) 0.781
 ≤ 5 mm 14 52 0.159
 > 5–10 mm 12 57  
 > 10–15 mm 13 25  
 > 15 mm 19 87  
Presence of emphysema    
Yes/No 4/54 6/215 0.224
Position for localization procedure    
Supine/Prone 24/34 108/113 0.309
Needle-pleura angle (°)    
Mean ± SD(range) 64.0 ± 14.0 (32.4–88.9) 61.2 ± 15.7 (21.1–89.8) 0.225
 ≤ 30° 0 8 0.410
 > 30–60° 23 93  
 > 60° 35 120  
Pleura-microcoil distance(mm)    
Mean ± IQR (range) 35.2 ± 9.4 (4.0–57.8) 34.07 + 10.3 (1.0–55.9) 0.378
 ≤ 10 mm 2 11 0.211
 > 10–20 mm 0 13  
 > 20–30 mm 11 43  
 > 30 mm 45 154  
Presence of pleural indentation    
Yes/No 10/48 60/161 0.121
Presence of the scapulae-covered    
Yes/No 4/54 42/179 0.027
Procedure-related complications    
Yes/No 19/39 68/153 0.771
Pneumothorax    
Yes/No 16/42 67/154 0.686
Intrapulmonary haemorrhage    
Yes/No 7/51 26/195 0.949
Surgical procedure    
Wedge resection/Anatomic resection/Open thoracotomy 46/12/0 134/85/2 -
Pathologic result    
Primary lung cancer/metastasis/Benign lesion 37/0/21 175/3/43 -
  1. Abbreviation: IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation; GGO, ground glass opacity; RUL, right upper lobe; RML, right middle lobe; RLL, right lower lobe; LUL, left upper lobe; LLL, left lower lobe
  2. The emphysema region was around the needle insertion pathway
  3. Pleura-microcoil distance was measured along the needle insertion pathway
  4. Anatomic resection included lobectomy and segmentectomy
  5. Detailed pathologic results were summarized in the Table 3