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Table 2 Group means or medians for secondary outcomes pre- and post-intervention, and mean within-person change in secondary outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI)

From: A feasibility randomised controlled trial of Novel Activity Management in severe ASthma-Tailored Exercise (NAMASTE): yoga and mindfulness

  Yoga group Control group
Pre, mean/median (CI) Post, mean/median (CI) Within-person change, mean (CI) Pre, mean/median (CI) Post, mean/median (CI) Within-person change, mean (CI)
Asthma control and quality of life
 ACQ5, median (CI) 1.4 (0.6, 2.0) 0.5 (0.2, 1.8) − 0.4 (− 1.0, 0.1) 0.8 (0.0, 2.1) 0.6 (0.2, 2.2) 0.2 (− 0.1, 0.5)
 SGRQ—Total score, mean (CI) 44 (32, 55) 35 (21, 48) − 10 (− 21, 1) 40 (29, 51) 38 (26, 49) − 3 (− 11, 6)
 SGRQ—Activity, mean (CI) 56 (42, 70) 46 (30, 61) − 12 (− 25, 2) 56 (32, 79) 49 (26, 72) − 7 (− 18, 5)
 SGRQ—Symptoms, mean (CI) 48 (31, 65) 41 (23, 59) − 8 (− 22, 6) 40 (25, 55) 46 (32, 61) 6 (− 2, 15)
 SGRQ—Impacts, mean (CI) 35 (24, 47) 27 (14, 40) − 9 (− 19, 0) 31 (21, 42) 28 (17, 40) − 3 (− 16, 10)
 EQ-5D—Your health today, median (CI) 80 (62, 88) 80 (61, 95) 7 (− 1, 15) 85 (67, 93) 90 (70, 95) 1 (− 7, 10)
 Number of exacerbations in the 12 months before baseline assessment (“pre”) or the duration since baseline assessment [median 56 weeks] (“post”), median (CI) 2 (1, 3) 1 (1, 2) 0 (− 2, 2) 3 (2, 3) 2 (1, 3) − 1 (− 3,1)
Physical activity
 Actigraph: Steps per day, mean (CI) 4883 (3749, 6017) 3923 (2828, 5018) − 101 (− 2073, 1871) 5652 (3367, 7937) 6599 (3963, 9234) 682 (− 912, 2277)
 Actigraph: Sedentary minutes per day, mean (CI) 791 (656, 925) 828 (669, 986) − 100 (− 265, 65) 792 (586, 999) 762 (569, 955) 12 (− 113, 136)
 Actigraph: Moderate-vigorous physical activity mean min/day, median (CI) 14 (8, 31) 17 (8, 23) 2 (− 14, 18) 14 (5, 64) 45 (15, 71) 11 (0, 21)
 Actigraph: Light physical activity mean min/day, median (CI) 161 (137, 175) 153 (102, 193) 12 (− 45, 69) 140 (124, 163) 142 (83, 168) − 12 (− 46, 23)
 IPAQ—Metabolic minutes per week, median (CI) 960 (198, 1600) 1302 (362, 2935) 752 (81, 1423) 2048 (105, 4073) 2772 (747, 4916) 1108 (− 1244, 3461)
Post-bronchodilator lung function
 % predicted FEV1, mean (CI) 75 (61, 88) 76 (64, 88) 3 (− 3, 10) 72 (56, 87) 73 (51, 96) 0 (− 6, 6)
 % predicted FVC, mean (CI) 91 (76, 105) 92 (78, 106) 3 (− 5, 11) 90 (81, 98) 88 (74, 101) − 1 (− 10, 8)
 FER, mean (CI) 0.64 (0.57, 0.72) 0.65 (0.57, 0.74) 0.01 (− 0.02, 0.04) 0.62 (0.48, 0.76) 0.64 (0.48, 0.80) 0.00 (− 0.03, 0.03)
Other physiological outcomes
 Blood eosinophils, median (CI) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2) 0.1 (0.0, 0.3) 0.0 (− 0.1, 0.0) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2) − 0.1 (− 0.2, 0.1)
 FeNO, median (CI) 20 (10, 46) 26 (18, 45) 1 (− 5, 8) 43 (21, 91) 36 (13, 69) − 6 (− 18, 6)
 hs-CRP, median (CI) 3 (1, 4) 3 (2, 5) 1 (− 1, 3) 1 (1, 10) 4 (1, 9) − 6 (− 26, 13)
 BMI, mean (CI) 32 (28, 35) 32 (29, 35) 0 (− 1, 1) 29 (24, 34) 29 (24, 35) 0 (0, 1)
 BIA % body fat mass, mean (CI) 41 (35, 47) 42 (37, 48) 1 (0, 2) 37 (26, 47) 38 (28, 47) 1 (0, 2)
 Total walk distance, mean (CI) 436 (384, 488) 453 (392, 513) 33 (− 2, 67) 526 (424, 628) 546 (441, 652) 20 (− 40, 80)
Other patient reported outcomes
 Dyspnea-12—total score (high score is greater symptoms), mean (CI) 11 (6, 15) 9 (3, 15) − 4 (− 8, 1) 7 (2, 13) 10 (4, 17) 4 (− 2, 9)
 HADS Anxiety score (high score is greater symptoms), median (CI) 6 (4, 9) 6 (2, 10) − 1 (− 3, 1) 4 (0, 7) 4 (2, 7) 0 (− 2, 2)
 HADS Depression score (high score is greater symptoms), median (CI) 3 (3, 8) 5 (1, 8) − 1 (− 2, 0) 4 (1, 8) 1 (0, 6) − 1 (− 2, 0)
 Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index total (high score is poorer sleep quality), mean (CI) 8 (6, 9) 8 (5, 10) − 1 (− 3, 2) 7 (5, 9) 5 (3, 7) − 1 (− 4, 1)
 Friendship Assessment total score (high score is less social isolation), median (CI) 20 (18, 24) 20 (16, 22) − 1 (− 4, 1) 23 (13, 24) 21 (17, 24) − 1 (− 4, 2)
 CAMS-R total score (high score is more mindfulness), median (CI) 33 (29, 35) 34 (28, 37) 2 (− 1, 5) 34 (21, 38) 37 (30, 40) 4 (− 2, 10)
  1. ACQ-5 Asthma Control Questionnaire-5, BIA bioimpedance analysis, BMI body mass index, CAMS-R Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale – Revised, CI confidence interval, FeNO fractional exhaled nitric oxide, FER forced expiratory ratio, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, IPAQ International Physical Activity Questionnaire, SGRQ St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire