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Table 1 Results of systematic review with cohort studies of COVID-19 patients who had follow-up—baseline characteristics

From: Radiological and functional lung sequelae of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Country Publication date Study design Cohort Size, N Follow-up timing Age Male, % (N) Comorbidities, % (N) Initial COVID-19 Symptoms, % (N) Symptoms at follow-up, % (N) Severe cases, % (N) Non-severe cases, % (N)
You [17] China 6/5/20 Retrospective 18 38 ± 13.4 days after discharge 50.7 ± 12.1 55.6% (10) Hypertension 16.7% (3)
Diabetes mellitus 5.6% (1)
Hypothyroidism 5.6% (1)
NA NA 33.3% (6) 66.7% (12)
Huang [18] China 6/29/20 Retrospective 57 30 days after discharge 46.7 ± 13.8 45.6% (26) Hypertension 19.3% (11)
Diabetes mellitus 7.0% (4)
Cardiovascular disease 5.3% (3)
Malignancy 5.3% (3)
NA Cough 10.5% (6)
Dyspnea 7% (4)
Occasional wheezing 5.3% (3)
29.8% (17) 70.2% (40)
Liu [19] China 7/21/20 Retrospective 51 Initial CT: median 10 days (range 7–16) after discharge
Llatest CT: median 31 days (range 20–37) after initial CT
46.6 ± 13.9 41.2% (21) Hypertension 13.7% (7)
Diabetes mellitus 7.8% (4)
Coronary heart disease 2% (1)
NA Cough 15.7% (8)
Sputum 3.9% (2)
Throat discomfort 5.9% (3)
NA NA
Zhao [20] China 8/25/20 Retrospective 55 64–93 days after discharge 47.7 ± 15.5 58.2% (32) Hypertension 10.9% (6)
Diabetes mellitus 3.6% (2)
Cardiovascular disease 3.6% (2)
Fever 67.3% (37)
Cough 54.5% (30)
Fatigue 32.7% (18)
GI symptoms 30.9% (17)
Headache 18.2% (10)
Fatigue 16.4% (9)
Exertional dyspnea 14.6% (8)
Cough and sputum 1.8% (1)
7.3% (4) 92.7% (51)
Zhong [21] China 10/14/20 Retrospective 52 39.6 ± 5.96 days after symptom onset
19.71 ± 4.08 days after discharge
45.5 ± 13.7 55.8% (29) Hypertension 23.1% (12)
Diabetes mellitus 9.6% (5)
Cardiac disease 5.8% (3)
Cerebrovascular disease 1.9% (1)
Fever 100% (52)
Cough 48.1% (25)
Fatigue 28.8% (15)
Headache 7.7% (4)
Vomiting 1.9% (1)
Abdominal pain3.8% (2)
Diarrhea 1.9% (1)
NA 36.5% (19) 63.5% (33)
Liang [22] China 10/26/20 Prospective 76 3 months after discharge 41.3 ± 13.8 28% (21) Hypertension 6.6% (5)
Cardiovascular disease 1.3% (1)
Diabetes mellitus 3.9% (3)
Thyroid disease 2.6% (2)
Pulmonary tuberculosis 6.6% (5)
Chronic bronchitis 3.9% (3)
Asthma 2.6% (2)
NA NA 9.2% (7) 90.8% (69)
Tabatabaei [23] Iran 11/9/20 Retrospective 52 91 ± 15.5 days after initial CT 50.2 ± 13.1 61.5% (32) Cardiac disease 11.5% (6)
Diabetes mellitus 7.7% (4)
Hypertension 3.8% (2)
Pulmonary disease 3.8% (2)
Fever 88.4% (46)
Fatigue 53.8% (28)
Dyspnea 40.4% (21)
Mild chest pain or discomfort 28.8% (15)
Dyspnea on exertion 11.5% (6)
Cough 1.9% (1)
NA NA
van den Borst [24] The Netherlands 11/21/20 Prospective 124 13.0 ± 2.2 weeks after symptom onset
9.1 ± 1.6 weeks after discharge
59 ± 14 60% (74) Cardiovascular disease 24% (30)
Asthma 10% (12)
COPD 6% (7)
Hypertension 28% (34)
Diabetes mellitus 14% (17)
Chronic kidney disease 8% (10)
Malignancy 20% (25)
Immunocompromised status 15% (18)
NA NA 37.1% (46) 62.9% (78)
Smet [25] Belgium 11/30/20 Retrospective 220 74 ± 12 days after diagnosis 53 ± 13 61.4% (135) Hypertension 34.1% (75)
Diabetes mellitus 17.7% (39)
NA Fatigue 40.9% (90)
Dyspnea 29.5% (65)
100% (220) 0% (0)
Shah [26] Canada 12/3/20 Prospective 60 12 weeks after symptom onset 67 [54, 74] 68.3% (41) Hypertension 35% (21)
Diabetes 22% (13)
Chronic pulmonary disease 13% (8)
Coronary artery disease 10% (6)
Malignancy 10% (6)
Chronic Kidney Disease 7% (4)
NA Dyspnea 20% (12)
Cough 20% (12)
76.7% (46) 23.3% (14)
Lerum [27] Norway 12/10/20 Prospective 103 83 [73, 90] days after hospital admission 59 [49, 72] 52% (54) Hypertension 34.0% (35)
Diabetes Mellitus 7.8% (8)
NA NA 14.6% (15) 85.4% (88)
Bellan [28] Italy 1/4/21 Prospective 238 4 months after after discharge 61 [50, 71] 59.7% (142) Hypertension 41.2% (98)
Diabetes Mellitus 15.1% (36)
Dyslipidemia 8.4% (20)
COPD 5.8% (14)
Inflammatory bowel disease 1.7% (4)
Chronic liver disease 2.9% (7)
Autoimmune disease 2.1% (5)
Hematological disease 6.3% (15)
Chronic kidney disease 6.3% (15)
Fever 90.3% (215)
Cough 55.5% (132)
Dyspnea 54.2% (129)
Ageusia 29.4% (70)
Anosmia 26.5% (63)
Diarrhea 22.7% (54)
Arthralgia 19.3% (46)
Myalgia 18.9% (45)
Chest pain 0.8% (2)
Sore throat 0.4% (1)
Headache 0.4% (1)
Cough 2.5% (6)
Dyspnea 5.5% (13)
Ageusia 5.0% (12)
Anosmia 4.6% (11)
Diarrhea 1.3% (3)
Arthralgia 5.9% (14)
Myalgia 5.9% (14)
Chest pain 0.4% (1)
29.4% (70) 70.6% (168)
Huang [29] China 1/8/21 Ambi-directional 1733 186 [175, 199] days after symptom onset 57 (47, 65) 52% (897) Hypertension 29.1% (505)
Diabetes Mellitus 11.9% (207)
Cardiovascular disease 7.4% (128)
Cerebrovascular disease 2.7% (47)
Malignancy 2.5% (44)
COPD 1.8% (31)
Chronic Kidney Disease 1.6% (27)
NA Fatigue 62.7% (1038)
Sleep difficulties 26.4% (437)
Hair loss 21.7% (359)
Smell disorder 10.6% (176)
Palpitations 9.3% (165)
Arthralgia 9.3% (165)
Decreased appetite 8.3% (138)
Taste disorder 7.3% (120)
Dizziness 6.1% (101)
Diarrhea or vomiting 4.8% (80)
Chest pain 4.5% (75)
Sore throat 4.2% (69)
Skin rash 2.8% (47)
Myalgia 2.4% (39)
Headache 2.0% (33)
7.0% (122) 93.0% (1611)
Guler [30] Switzerland 1/8/21 Prospective 113 128 [108, 144] days after symptom onset 57.2 ± 12.1 59.3% (67) Hypertension 35.4% (40)
Diabetes Mellitus 20.4% (23)
Interstitial lung disease 4.4% (5)
COPD 8.0% (9)
Asthma 13.3% (15)
GERD 9.7% (11)
Sleep apnea 10.6% (12)
Chronic heart failure 9.7% (11)
Chronic Kidney Disease 11.5% (13)
Malignancy 5.3% (6)
NA NA 58.4% (66) 41.6% (47)
Han [31] China 1/26/21 Prospective 114 175 ± 20 days after symptom onset 54 ± 12 70.2% (80) Hypertension 28.1% (32)
Diabetes Mellitus 11.4% (13)
Chronic pulmonary disease 14.0% (16)
NA Cough 6.1% (7)
Sputum 10.0% (11)
Exertional Dyspnea 14.0% (16)
NA NA
  1. Value is shown as mean ± SD or median [Q1, Q3]. Abbreviations: NA non-applicable, PFT pulmonary function test, CT computed tomography, GI gastrointestinal. Studies are in order of publication date